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A Physicist's Bitcoin Trading Strategy. No leverage, no going short, just spot trading. Total cumulative outperformance 2011-2020: 13,000,000%.

https://www.tradingview.com/script/4J5psNDo-A-Physicist-s-Bitcoin-Trading-Strategy/
3. Backtest Results
Backtest results demonstrate significant outperformance over buy-and-hold . The default parameters of the strategy/indicator have been set by the author to achieve maximum (or, close to maximum) outperformance on backtests executed on the BTCUSD ( Bitcoin ) chart. However, significant outperformance over buy-and-hold is still easily achievable using non-default parameters. Basically, as long as the parameters are set to adequately capture the full character of the market, significant outperformance on backtests is achievable and is quite easy. In fact, after some experimentation, it seems as if underperformance hardly achievable and requires deliberately setting the parameters illogically (e.g. setting one parameter of the slow indicator faster than the fast indicator). In the interest of providing a quality product to the user, suggestions and guidelines for parameter settings are provided in section (6). Finally, some metrics of the strategy's outperformance on the BTCUSD chart are listed below, both for the default (optimal) parameters as well as for a random sample of parameter settings that adhere to the guidelines set forth in section (6).
Using the default parameters, relative to buy-and-hold strategy, backtested from August 2011 to August 2020,
Using the default parameters, relative to buy-and-hold strategy, during specific periods,
Using a random sample (n=20) of combinations of parameter settings that adhere to the guidelines outlined in section (6), relative to buy-and-hold strategy, backtested from August 2011 to August 2020,
EDIT (because apparently not everybody bothers to read the strategy's description):
7. General Remarks About the Indicator
Other than some exponential moving averages, no traditional technical indicators or technical analysis tools are employed in this strategy. No MACD , no RSI , no CMF , no Bollinger bands , parabolic SARs, Ichimoku clouds , hoosawatsits, XYZs, ABCs, whatarethese. No tea leaves can be found in this strategy, only mathematics. It is in the nature of the underlying math formula, from which the indicator is produced, to quickly identify trend changes.
8. Remarks About Expectations of Future Results and About Backtesting
8.1. In General As it's been stated in many prospectuses and marketing literature, "past performance is no guarantee of future results." Backtest results are retrospective, and hindsight is 20/20. Therefore, no guarantee can, nor should, be expressed by me or anybody else who is selling a financial product (unless you have a money printer, like the Federal Reserve does).
8.2. Regarding This Strategy No guarantee of future results using this strategy is expressed by the author, not now nor at any time in the future.
With that written, the author is free to express his own expectations and opinions based on his intimate knowledge of how the indicator works, and the author will take that liberty by writing the following: As described in section (7), this trading strategy does not include any traditional technical indicators or TA tools (other than smoothing EMAs). Instead, this strategy is based on a principle that does not change, it employs a complex indicator that is based on a math formula that does not change, and it places trades based on five simple rules that do not change. And, as described in section (2.1), the indicator is designed to capture the full character of the market, from a macro/global scope down to a micro/local scope. Additionally, as described in section (3), outperformance of the market for which this strategy was intended during backtesting does not depend on luckily setting the parameters "just right." In fact, all random combinations of parameter settings that followed the guidelines outperformed the intended market in backtests. Additionally, no parameters are included within the underlying math formula from which the indicator is produced; it is not as if the formula contains a "5" and future outperformance would depend on that "5" being a "6" instead. And, again as described, it is in the nature of the formula to quickly identify trend changes. Therefore, it is the opinion of the author that the outperformance of this strategy in backtesting is directly attributable to the fundamental nature of the math formula from which the indicator is produced. As such, it is also the opinion of the author that continued outperformance by using this strategy, applied to the crypto ( Bitcoin ) market, is likely, given that the parameter settings are set reasonably and in accordance with the guidelines. The author does not, however, expect future outperformance of this strategy to match or exceed the outperformance observed in backtests using the default parameters, i.e. it probably won't outperform by anything close to 13,000,000% during the next 9 years.
Additionally, based on the rolling 1-month outperformance data listed in section (3), expectations of short-term outperformance should be kept low; the median 1-month outperformance was -2%, so it's basically a 50/50 chance that any significant outperformance is seen in any given month. The true strength of this strategy is to be out of the market during large, sharp declines and capitalizing on the opportunities presented at the bottom of those declines by buying the dip. Given that such price action does not happen every month, outperformance in the initial months of use is approximately as likely as underperformance.
submitted by anon2414691 to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Can we talk about sharding and decentralized scaling for Raiblocks?

Introduction
This essay contains a healthy dose of math sprinkled with opinion, and I would be the first to admit that my math and personal opinions are sometimes wrong. The beauty of these forums is that it allows us to discuss topics in depth, and with enough group scrutiny we should arrive at the truth. I'm actually a cryptocurrency noob; I've only been looking at it in earnest for a few months, but I've seen enough to conclude that we are in the middle of a revolution, and if I don't intellectually participate somehow, I think I'll regret it for the rest of my life.
Here I analyze sharding in a PoS (proof-of-stake) system, and I will show that not only is sharding good, but I will quantify just how beneficial it is to Tps (transactions per second of the whole network) and mps (messages per second processed by each individual node). I use Raiblocks as my point of departure, regarding it as both my inspiration and my object of critique. But much of the discussion should be relevant to any PoS sharded system.
As you may know, Raiblocks does not employ ledger sharding, but seeing as every wallet is already in its own separate blockchain, it's basically already half-way there! From an engineering perspective, sharding is low-hanging fruit for a block-lattice structure like Raiblock's, especially when you compare it to how complicated it is for single-blockchain currencies.
For the record, I think that Raiblocks will scale just fine according to the current strategy laid out by Colin LeMahieu (u/meor) . By using only full nodes and hosting them in enterprise grade servers (basically datacenters), chances are good that the network will be able to keep up with future Tps (transaction per second) growth. Skeptics have been questioning if people are going to be willing to run nodes pro bono, just to support the network. But I don't doubt that many vendors will jump at the chance. If I'm Amazon, and I've been paying 3% of everything to Visa all these years, when there's an option to basically run my own Visa, I take it.
Payment networks like Paypal have been offering free person-to-person payments for years, eating the costs of processing those transactions in exchange for the opportunity to take their cut when those same people pay online vendors like Amazon. This makes business sense because only a minority of transactions are person-to-person anyway. Most payments result from people buying stuff. So, in a sense, vendors like Amazon have already been subsidizing our free transactions for years. By running Raiblocks nodes, they would still be subsidizing our transactions, but it would be a better deal than what they were getting before.
But have we forgotten something here? Is this really the dream of the instant, universal, decentralized, uncensorable payment network that was promised and only kinda delivered by Bitcoin? Decentralization comes in a spectrum, and while this is certainly better than a private blockchain like Ripple, the future of Raiblocks that we're looking at is a smallish number of supernodes run by a consortium of corporations, governments, and maybe a sprinkling of die-hard fans.
You may ask, but what about the nodes run by you and me on our dinky home computers and cable modem connections? Well, people need to remember that Raiblocks nodes need to talk to each other every time there's a transaction, in order to exchange their votes. The more nodes there are, the more messages have to be received and sent per node per transaction. Having more nodes may improve the decentralization, redudancy, and robustness of the network, but speed it definitely does not. Sure, the SSD of a computer running a mock node will handle 7000 tps, but the real bottleneck is network IO, not disk IO, and how many Comcast internet plans are going to keep up with 7000 x N messages per second, where N is the total number of nodes? If you take the message size to be 260 bytes (credit to u/juanjux's packet-sniffing skills), and the number of nodes to be 1000, that's 1.8 GB/s. Also, if you consider that at least two messages will need to be exchanged with every node (one for the sending wallet, one for the receiving), the network requirements per node becomes 3.6 GB/s. This requirement applies to both the download and upload bandwidth, since in addition to receiving votes from other nodes, you have to announce your own vote to all of them as well. Maybe with multicasting upload requirements can be relaxed, but the overall story is the same: you almost want to convince small players not to run their own nodes, so N doesn't grow too large. Hence, the lack of dividends.
So, if we're resigned to running Raiblocks from corporate supernodes in the future, we might want to ask ourselves, why is decentralization so important anyway? For 99.9% of the cases, I actually think it won't matter. People just want their transactions to complete in a low-cost and timely fashion. And that's why I think Ripple and Raiblocks on their current trajectories have bright futures. They are the petty cash of the future. But for bulk wealth storage, you want decentralization because it makes it hard for any one entity to gain control over your money. No government will be able to step in and freeze your funds if you're Wikileaks or a political dissident when your cryptocurrency network is hosted on millions of computers scattered across the internet. I know the millions number sounds outlandish given that Bitcoin itself has fewer than 12k nodes at present, but that's my vision for the future. And I hope that by the end of this essay, you'll agree it's plausible.
The main benefit of sharding is that it allows nodes to divide the task of hosting the ledger into smaller chunks, reducing the per-node bandwidth requirements to achieve a certain Tps. I'll show that this benefit comes without having to sacrifice ledger redundancy, so long as sufficient nodes can be recruited. One disadvantage that must be noted is the increased overhead of coordinating a large number of nodes subscribed to partial ledgers. At the very least, nodes will need to know how wealthy other nodes are for voting purposes. However, I don't see how an up-to-the-second update of nodal wealth is necessary, since wealth changes on the timescale of months, if not years. It should be sufficient to conduct a role call once every few weeks to update nodes on who the other nodes are and to impart information about wealth and ledger subscriptions. Nonetheless, in principle this overhead means it is still possible to have too many nodes even with sharding.
Raiblocks has a unique advantage over single-chain cryptocoins in that each wallet address is already its own blockchain. This makes it especially amenable to sharding, since each wallet can already be thought of as its own shard! You just need a clever algorithm to decide which nodes subscribe to which wallets. For the purposes of this analysis, I assume a random subscription, so that for example if both you and I subscribe to 10% of the ledger, our subscriptions are probabilistically independent, and we intersect on roughly one percent of the total wallet space. I will also assume that all nodes are identical to each other in bandwidth, though in practice I think each node's owner should decide how much bandwidth he is willing to commit, letting the node's software dynamically adjust its P to maintain the desired bandwidth, where P, or the participation level, is the fraction of the ledger that the node is subscribed to. That way, when the Tps of the network increases over time, each node will use the increasing bandwidth demand as a feedback signal to automatically lower its ledger subscription percentage. Then, all that would be missing for smooth and seamless network growth is a mechanism for ensuring node count growth.
 
Some math
Symbol Definition
mps messages per second received/sent per individual node
N total number of nodes
Tps transactions per second processed by the whole network
R ledger redundancy
P fractional participation level of an individual node
k role call frequency
From the definitions, it should be apparent that
(1) R = NP
There are two types of messages that nodes have to deal with, transaction messages and role-call messages. Transaction messages are those related to updating the ledger when money is sent from one wallet to another. For each transaction, each node presiding over the sending wallet/shard will need to
  1. Broadcast its vote to the other R members of the shard. In the normal case this is a thumbs up signal and no conflict resolution is required.
  2. Receive votes from the other R members of the shard
  3. Broadcast its thumbs up to the R members of the receiving wallet/shard
Each node presiding over the receiving wallet/shard will need to
  1. receive thumbs up signals from the R members of the sending wallet/shard
Therefore, on a macro level upload and download requirements are the same. (Two messages sent, two messages received.)
Role-call messages are those related to disseminating an active directory of which nodes are participating in which wallets and information about nodal wealth. Knowledge about each individual node is broadcasted to the network at a rate of k. I think 10-6 Hz is reasonable, for an update interval of 12 days. For each update, all R nodes presiding over the wallet of the node whose information is being shared will broadcast their view of the node's wealth to all N nodes. Therefore, from the perspective on an individual node:
  1. The rate that role-call messages are received is kRN.
  2. The rate that role-call messages are sent is k(# node wallets presided over)N = k(NP)N = kRN.
Again, upload and download rates are the same. Since upload and download rates are symmetric (which intuitively should be true since every message that is sent needs to be received), the parameter mps can be used equally to describe upload and download bandwidth.
(2) mps = 2R(PTps) + kRN,
where the two terms correspond to the transaction and role-call messages, respectively. Using (1), (2) can be rewritten as
(3) mps = 2R2Tps/N + kRN
Here, we see an interesting relationship between the different message categories and the node count. For a fixed ledger redundancy R and Tps, the number of transaction messages is inversely proportional to the number of nodes. This is intuitive. If all of a sudden there are twice as many nodes and ledger redundancy remains the same, then each node has halved its ledger subscription and only has to deal with half as many transactions. This is the "many hands make light work" phenomenon in action. On the other hand, the number of role-call messages increases in proportion to the number of nodes. The interplay between these two factors determines the sweet spot where mps is at a local minimum. Since the calculus is straightforward, I'll leave it as an exercise to the reader to show that
(4) N_sweetspot = (2RTps/k)1/2
Alternatively, another way of looking things is to consider mps to be fixed. This may be more appropriate if each node is pegged at its committed bandwidth. Then (3) describes the relationship between the ledger redundancy and N. You may ask how this can be reconciled with (1), which seems to imply that N and R are directly proportional, but in this scenario each node is dynamically adjusting its ledger subscription P in response to a changing N to maintain a constant bandwidth mps. In this view, the sweet spot for N is where R is maximized. Interestingly, regardless of which view you take, you arrive at the same expression for the sweet spot (4).
If N < N_sweetspot, then transaction messages dominate the total message count. The system is in the transaction-heavy regime and needs more nodes to help carry the transaction load. If N > N_sweetspot (the node-heavy regime), transaction messages are low, but the number of role-call messages is large and it becomes expensive to keep the whole network in sync. When N = N_sweetspot, the two message categories occur at the same rate, which is easily verified by plugging (4) back into (3). This is when the network is at its most decentralized: message count per node is low while redundancy is high.
Note that N_sweetspot increases as Tps1/2. This implies that, as transaction rate increases, the network will not optimally scale without somehow attracting new people to run nodes. But the incentives can't be too good either, or N may increase beyond N_sweetspot. Ideally, a feedback mechanism using market forces will encourage the network to gravitate towards the sweet spot (more on this later).
One special case is where P=1 and N=R. This is when the network is at its most centralized operating point, with every single node acting as a full node. This minimizes node count for a given redundancy level R and is how Raiblocks is currently designed. I will show that for most real-world numbers, the role-call term is so small as to be negligible, but the mps is many orders of magnitude higher than in the decentralized case because of the large transaction term.
Assuming that we are able to keep the network operating at its sweet spot, by plugging (4) into (3), we arrive at
(5) mps_sweetspot = R3/2(8kTps)1/2
If instead we plug N=R into (3), we arrive at
(6) mps_centralized = 2RTps + kR2
So, we see that in the decentralized case the mps of individual nodes increases as the square root of Tps, a much more sustainable form of scaling than the linear relationship in the centralized case.
And now, the moment we've all been waiting for: plugging various network load scenarios into these formulas and comparing the most decentralized case to the most centralized. Real world operation will be somewhere in between these two extremes.
Fixed parameters
packet size (bytes) 260
k (Hz) 1.00E-06
R 1000
transaction fee ($) $0.01
Tps
0.1 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000
Total monthly dividends $2,592 $25,920 $259,200 $2,592,000 $25,920,000 $259,200,000 $2,592,000,000
Decentralized node requirements
mps (Hz) 28 89 283 894 2,828 8,944 28,284
node traffic (bytes/s) 7.35E+03 2.33E+04 7.35E+04 2.33E+05 7.35E+05 2.33E+06 7.35E+06
N 1.41E+04 4.47E+04 1.41E+05 4.47E+05 1.41E+06 4.47E+06 1.41E+07
P 7.07E-02 2.24E-02 7.07E-03 2.24E-03 7.07E-04 2.24E-04 7.07E-05
Total Network Traffic (bytes/s) 1.04E+08 1.04E+09 1.04E+10 1.04E+11 1.04E+12 1.04E+13 1.04E+14
Yearly Network Traffic (bytes) 3.28E+15 3.28E+16 3.28E+17 3.28E+18 3.28E+19 3.28E+20 3.28E+21
Decentralized node income
monthly per node ($) $0.18 $0.58 $1.83 $5.80 $18.33 $57.96 $183.28
income/GB ($/GB) $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096 $0.0096
Centralized node requirements
mps (Hz) 2.01E+02 2.00E+03 2.00E+04 2.00E+05 2.00E+06 2.00E+07 2.00E+08
node traffic (bytes/s) 5.23E+04 5.20E+05 5.20E+06 5.20E+07 5.20E+08 5.20E+09 5.20E+10
N 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
P 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Total Network Traffic (bytes/s) 5.23E+07 5.20E+08 5.20E+09 5.20E+10 5.20E+11 5.20E+12 5.20E+13
Yearly Network Traffic (bytes) 1.65E+15 1.64E+16 1.64E+17 1.64E+18 1.64E+19 1.64E+20 1.64E+21
Centralized node income
monthly per node ($) $2.59 $25.92 $259.20 $2,592 $25,920 $259,200 $2,592,000
income/GB ($/GB) 0.0191 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192 0.0192
Yes, I did sneak a transaction fee in there, which is anathema to the Raiblocks way. But I wanted to incentivize people to run nodes. Observe that income per gigabyte remains the same, independent of network Tps, because both total income and total bandwidth scale proportionally to Tps. The decentralized case has half the income/GB because the role-call overhead doubles network activity. In either case, the income per GB depends on transaction fee and is independent of network load.
An interesting number to check online is the price/GB that various ISP's charge. With Google Fiber, it is possible to purchase bandwidth as low as $0.00076 per GB, meaning that it may be possible for nodes to be profitable even if fees were lowered by another order of magnitude. As time progresses, bandwidth costs will only go down, so fees may be able to be lowered even further past that. But because of electricity and other miscellaneous costs, I think a one cent transaction fee is probably pretty close to what people need to incentivize them to run nodes.
With sharding, even many home broadband connections today can feasibly support 100,000 transactions per second, with each node subscribed to about one ten thousandth of the total ledger and handling about 7 MB/s. Getting 14 million people to run nodes may seem like a tall order, but the financial incentives are there. Just look at all the people who have rushed to do GPU mining. Here, bandwidth replaces hashing power as the tool used for mining.
According to a study done by Cisco, yearly internet traffic is projected to reach 3.3 ZB by 2021. Looking at the table, that means if we ever reach 100,000 Tps, Sharded Raiblocks traffic would be equal to the rest of the world combined. Yikes! But if you think about it, nobody along the way is taking on an unbearable load. Users pay low fees for transactions. Nodes get dividends. ISPs get additional customers. The only ones who lose out are Visa, Paypal, and banks.
With such a large network presence, the cultural impact of this coin would be huge. That, in addition to the sheer number of participants running nodes as side businesses would cement this as the coin of the people.
From a macro level, I see no red flags that would indicate this is economically or technically infeasible. Of course, the devil's in the details so I'm posting this to see if people think I'm on the right track. To me, it seems that the possibilities are tantalizing and someone needs to build a test net to see if this idea flies (u/meor, if any of this sounds appealing, are you guys hiring? ;) ).
Musings
I've only scratched the surface and there are many other topics that are worthy of deeper discussion:
submitted by Cookiemole to RaiBlocks [link] [comments]

Linker error: Tap dance related... maybe?

Once again I shall come to you my dear sirs and madams for rescue! Finally everything complies but now the linker is acting up...
***userspace/rumlyne.c #include "quantum.h" #include "process_keycode/process_tap_dance.h" //#include "action_layer.h" #include "rumlyne.h" #include "nqadnw_basic_layout.h" --- ***userspace/rumlyne.h#pragma once #ifndef RUMLYNE_H #define RUMLYNE_H #include "keymap_german.h" #include  #include "quantum.h" #include "action.h" ---insert many many definitions and stuff that apparently works because it is tap dance functions that seems to bother the linker--- #ifdef TAP_DANCE_ENABLE enum /*tap_key*/ { QOT = 0, CUR, TLD, AT, PAR, SDO, APT, PCM, GUI, UCS, AF4, GTN, GTW, EML, BYE, BR1, //bracket 1,2,3,4 BR2, BR3, BR4, ARH, //arrow H,J,K,L ARJ, ARK, ARL }; #endif // TAP_DANCE_ENABLE enum userspace_layers { _BASE = 0, // Programmer BUX // default _JPNS, // 2 // Japanese Kana layout based on esrilles new stickney layout // TODO FUTURE _CODE, // 3 // Code friendly layer _STD, // 4 // QWERTZ, QWERTY, AZERTY, etc. _RAISE_L, // _RAISE when accessed via left MOD // BuT based symbol layer _RAISE_L_C, // _RAISE when accessed via left MOD on _CODE layer _RAISE_R, _RAISE_R_C, _LOWER_L, _LOWER_L_C, _LOWER_R, _LOWER_R_C, _LEFT, _LEFT_C, // _LEFT when pressed on _CODE layer _RIGHT // NUM+ // _RIGHT_C }; // NQADNW specific layer MODs #define RS_L LT(_RAISE_L, KC_SPC) // access _RAISE via left MOD #define RS_L_C LT(_RAISE_L_C, KC_SPC) // access _RAISE_C via left MOD on _CODE layer #define RS_R LT(_RAISE_R, KC_DOT) // access _RAISE via right MOD #define RS_R_C LT(_RAISE_R_C, KC_DOT) // access _RAISE_C via right MOD on _CODE layer #define LW_L LT(_LOWER_L, KC_COMM) // access _LOWER via left MOD #define LW_L_C LT(_LOWER_L_C, KC_COMM) // access _LOWER_C via left MOD on _CODE layer #define LW_R LT(_LOWER_R, KC_ENT) // access _LOWER via right MOD #define LW_R_C LT(_LOWER_L_C, KC_ENT) // access _LOWER_C via right MOD on _CODE layer #define LEFT TT(_LEFT) #define RIGHT LT(_RIGHT, /*TG(_RIGHT)*/KC_NO) // TODO FUTURE //#define CODE TT(_CODE) ---imsert many many definitions and stuff that apparently works because it is tap dance functions that seems to bother the linker--- // String keycodes & dynaminc macro dependancy enum more_custom_keycodes { DYNAMIC_MACRO_RANGE = NEW_SAFE_RANGE, // necessary for dynamic macros according to QMK guide KS_00, NEW_NEW_SAFE_RANGE }; char ST_EML_UNAME1[10] = "xxxxxxxxxx"; char ST_EML_UNAME2[17] = "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx"; char ST_EML_UNAME3[7] = "rumlyne"; // :) char ST_EML_DOMAIN1[9] = "xxxxxxxxx"; char ST_EML_DOMAIN2[6] = "xxxxxx"; char ST_EML_DOMAIN3[6] = "xxxxxx"; char ST_EML_DOMAIN4[6] = "xxxxxx"; char ST_DNUL[2] = "00"; char ST_SUDO[5] = "sudo "; char ST_DFNE[8] = "#define "; char ST_INCL[9] = "#include "; char ST_APIS[16] = "apt-get install "; char ST_APUD[15] = "apt-get update "; char ST_APUG[16] = "apt-get upgrade "; char ST_PMNS[10] = "pacman -S "; char ST_PSYU[12] = "pacman -Syu "; char ST_PSYY[14] = "pacman -Syyuu "; static const char ST_SGDH[31] = {"Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren, "}; static const char ST_LKUK[32] = {"Liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen, "}; static const char ST_MFG1[20] = {"Mit freundlichen Gr["}; // siehe quantum/keymap_extras/sendstring_german char ST_MFG2[2] = "n "; char ST_HAVL[17] = "Hochachtungsvoll "; char ST_DSOM[19] = "Dear sir or madam, "; char ST_DRCS[16] = "Dear collegues, "; char ST_BTRS[14] = "Best regards, "; /* static const char * const ST_DEGR[31] = { "Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren, ", "Liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen, ", "Mit freundlichen Grüßen " }; */ #ifdef UNICODE_ENABLE enum unicode_name { //UST_HBR, // //UST_DEG, // //UST_LIR, // UST_BIT, // ₿ Bitcoin //UST_EUR, // € UST_BPN, // £ UST_YEN, // ¥ UST_TMK, // ™ UST_RTM, // ® UST_CPR // © }; const uint16_t PROGMEM unicode_map[] = { //16 genug? //[UST_HBR] = 0x0127, //[UST_DEG] = 0x00B0, //[UST_LIR] = 0x20BA, [UST_BIT] = 0x20BF, // ₿ Bitcoin //[UST_EUR] = 0x20AC, // € [UST_BPN] = 0x00A3, // £ [UST_YEN] = 0x00A5, // ¥ [UST_TMK] = 0x2122, // ™ [UST_RTM] = 0x00B0, // ® [UST_CPR] = 0x00AE // © }; #endif // UNICODE_ENABLE bool process_record_user(uint16_t keycode, keyrecord_t *record) { // send strings, send even more strings when tap dance is disabled switch(keycode) { case KS_00: if (record->event.pressed) { send_string(ST_DNUL); return false; } } return true; }; // Tap dance events // ' " void td_quot_dqot (qk_tap_dance_state_t *state, void *user_data) { if (state->count == 1) { clear_mods(); //tap_code(DE_QUOT); register_code(KC_LSFT); tap_code(KC_BSLS/*DE_HASH*/); unregister_code(KC_LSFT); } else if (state->count == 2) { clear_mods(); //tap_code(DE_DQOT); register_code(KC_LSFT); tap_code(KC_2); unregister_code(KC_LSFT); } else if (state->count == 3) { clear_mods(); //tap_code(DE_DQOT); //tap_code(DE_DQOT); register_code(KC_LSFT); tap_code(KC_2); tap_code(KC_2); unregister_code(KC_LSFT); tap_code(KC_LEFT); } else if (state->count == 4) { clear_mods(); //tap_code(DE_QUOT); //tap_code(DE_QUOT); register_code(KC_LSFT); tap_code(KC_BSLS/*DE_HASH*/); tap_code(KC_BSLS/*DE_HASH*/); unregister_code(KC_LSFT); tap_code(KC_LEFT); } else if (state->count >= 5) { reset_tap_dance(state); } reset_tap_dance(state); }---And so on--- qk_tap_dance_action_t tap_dance_actions[] = { [QOT] = ACTION_TAP_DANCE_FN(td_quot_dqot), ---and so on--- }; #endif // rumlyne.h 
With make idobo:rumlyne it successfully compiles everything until shit hits the fan when it the linker engages:
Compiling: users/rumlyne/rumlyne.c [OK] Compiling: keyboards/idobo/keymaps/rumlyne/keymap.c [OK] Linking: .build/idobo_rumlyne.elf [ERRORS] | | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/keyboards/idobo/keymaps/rumlyne/keymap.o (symbol from plugin): In function `td_quot_dqot': | (.text+0x0): multiple definition of `td_quot_dqot' | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/rumlyne.o (symbol from plugin):(.text+0x0): first defined here ---and so on---- | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/rumlyne.o (symbol from plugin):(.text+0x0): first defined here | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/keyboards/idobo/keymaps/rumlyne/keymap.o (symbol from plugin): In function `td_quot_dqot': | (.text+0x0): multiple definition of `unicode_map' | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/rumlyne.o (symbol from plugin):(.text+0x0): first defined here | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/keyboards/idobo/keymaps/rumlyne/keymap.o (symbol from plugin): In function `td_quot_dqot': | (.text+0x0): multiple definition of `ascii_to_keycode_lut' | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/rumlyne.o (symbol from plugin):(.text+0x0): first defined here | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/keyboards/idobo/keymaps/rumlyne/keymap.o (symbol from plugin): In function `td_quot_dqot': | (.text+0x0): multiple definition of `ascii_to_shift_lut' | .build/obj_idobo_rumlyne/rumlyne.o (symbol from plugin):(.text+0x0): first defined here | collect2.exe: error: ld returned 1 exit status | make[1]: *** [tmk_core/rules.mk:299: .build/idobo_rumlyne.elf] Errors 1 Make finished with errors make: *** [Makefile:544: idobo:rumlyne] Errors 1 
I have no idea what this is about and a quick google search didn't reveal much. Let me know if you need to see the other headers/full config/.build folder.

Edit: compiling in a newly installed instance of msys on win7.
Edit2: Here and here are the links to github
Edit3 2019-02-05: by using static const char when defining my "strings" I got the linker errors down to the last 2 parts regarding ascii_to_keycode_lut & ascii_to_shift_lut which are a result of including . Without it it compiles but of course the "strings" sent will be incorrect.

submitted by rumlyne to olkb [link] [comments]

Crowdsourcing the sidebar update part 1: suggested reading/education

Here's our awesome list of books to read. If you think something is missing or out of place feel free to shoot a message to the modmail and we'll consider changing things.
Beginner: total noob, no finance background
Intermediate: has taken intro to finance, courses, been investing more than a year, knows the difference between equities and fixed income, etc
Advanced: complex concepts, grad school level things, maths that have more than one symbol in them.
e: I'll summarize here for future readers:

Beginner books:

General:

Beginner
-Little book of common sense investing by John bogle
-A Random walk down wall street by burton malkiel
-The boglehead guide to investing by Larimore, Lindauer, LeBoeuf
-Four Pillars of Investing by William Bernstein - beginner, general
Intermediate
-Intelligent Asset Allocator by William Bernstein - intermediate, asset allocation
-A History of Interest Rates
-The Myth of the Rational Market
-How Markets Fail - Cassidy
-Alchemy of finance
-One up on wall street - peter lynch
-Against the gods - Peter Bernstein
-F Wall Street by Joe Ponzio
Advanced
-Hedge Fund Market Wizards
-Manual of Ideas

Corporate Fundamentals:

-How to Read Financial Statements - Ittelson (Fundamental/Beginner)
-How to Read a Financial Report - Tracey (Fundamental/beginner)

Fundamental analysis:

Intermediate
-The intelligent investor by Ben Graham
-Expectations Investing
-What works on wall street by James O'Shaughnessey
-Accounting for Value
-Value Investing from Graham to Buffett and Beyond
-Investment Banking - Rosenbaum
-What's Behind the Numbers
-It's Earnings that Count
-Common stocks and uncommon profits - Philip Fisher
-Contrarian Investment Stategies
Advanced
-Financial Statement Analysis and Security Valuation

Quantitative strategies:

Intermediate
-Your Complete Guide to Factor Investing
-Quantitative Strategies for Achieving Alpha
-Quantitative Value
-Quantitative Momentum
-Derivatives Essentials - Gottesman

Macroeconomics:

Beginner
Any current intro to macro textbook. It's best to stick to a university level intro book here because most of those won't try to push any sort of agenda.
Intermediate
Read up on money and banking. The standard textbook is Fredric Miskin (again get the latest edition). I thought the book was dry as dust (sorry Rick!) but it does go through the basics. If you are a serious investor you need to inoculate yourself against all the fairy tales from Austrians/bitcoiners/gold bugs/FED-haters generally that are floating around on the internet.
Another really great book is David Moss "Macroeconomics." It's a very concise book that he uses at Harvard b-school to give an overview to MBAs. It's actually more basic than a textbook like Blanchard, but it's so short and well-organized that it will give you the big picture AFTER you been immersed in the details.
Ed Leamer's "Macroeconomic Patterns and Stories" cannot be recommended enough for investors. He is a serious econometrician, but here he emphasizes the importance of "Pictures, Words, and Numbers: In that order." The book is all about forecasting the business cycle and gets you thinking about wrestling with the data. His examples are mostly US based (a large fairly closed economy) so you'll need to keep that in mind when you consider small open economies (like say the Netherlands).
Read Carlin and Soskice "Macroeonomics" - again the latest edition. So why another macro book? It doesn't hurt to look at things from a (slightly) different perspective. The explanation of the New Keynesian 3-equation model in the book is among the best. Go find the syllabus used at Oxford for their undergrad macro course to get some supplemental materials and essay topics.
ADVANCED
Read all the reports and releases that come from the main central banks (Fed, ECB, BoJ, BoE). This is indispensable for being a macro investor. Don't rely only on the summarized, filtered version from the news. You want to get inside the head of Yellen, Draghi, Kuroda, and Carney and the rest of the people on the monetary policy committees. How are they interpreting the news, what mental and formal models are they using, where do they disagree? Modern central banking has moved toward policy transparency so investors need to be well-calibrated to what is being said and follow their lead in many cases.
Get a book on economic indicators. There a few standard ones somewhat skewed to the US audience. Goldman Sachs at least in the past, puts out guides to macro releases. Don't worry if you can't get your hands on these, just go to the relevant government agency website and there will be more details than you could ever want. Of course, it will take experience to understand how markets react to the different macro announcements.
Get up to speed on market-based indicators. These will tend to be the most up-to-date, forward looking indicators since they are based on traded financial instruments. An example is Fed funds futures from which you can extract the market's expectation of a rate change. There are lots of traded instruments that will give you insight into what the market thinks is going on for interest rates, inflation, etc. Options on equity indices will also give you information. If you need some background, get Hull's excellent introductory book on options.
Read the article on money creation from the Bank of England. Resident mod (and I hear also a very good cook in real life) MasterCookSwag
often provides this link in this sub when battling the above mentioned goldbugs, bit coiners and other loonies. You'll find that it is additive even after you've read Mishkin.
Read the book "Economic Policy" by Bénassy-Quéré, Coeuré, Jacquet, and Pisani-Ferry. This book is written by a group of academics/policymakers and ties policymaking to economic theory. It's not very technical, but covers a lot of ground and is very applied. It will help you understand what people at central banks and finance ministries are thinking about.
Finally, lest you think you know it all at this point, check out Uribe and Schmitt-Grohe's forthcoming book "Open Economy Macroeconomics," a draft manuscript of which is available for free here. The website also has lectures slides, computer code, and data so that you can really learn the material. Unfortunately, unless you are technically (i.e. mathematically) well-trained just reading the previous books in this list will not prepare you for this book since serious macro requires a lot more than curve-shifting. (Curve shifting is enough to be a very good investor, but if you want to know what the experts are talking about, you need to go beyond. But go in with your eyes open and read Romer's recent essay on the state of affairs.)
If necessary (for example to understand the Uribe book), take a step back and learn some of the technical foundations. Read David Romer's "Advanced Macroeconomics" and work through the superb programming exercises at Tom Sargent and John Stachurski's online course at Quantitative Economics, which can be done in Python or Julia. If you need to take another step back, read Stachurski's recent book "A Primer in Econometric Theory" for a gentle introduction to probability and estimation.

Options/futures/derivatives:

Intermediate
-Option Volatility & Pricing: Advanced Trading Strategies and Techniques, Sheldon Natenberg.
Advanced
Options, futures, and other derivatives by John C Hull

Tangentially related books

Beginner
-The Big Short
-Where are the customer's yachts
-The richest man in Babylon
-The smartest guys in the room(enron documentary- not a book)
Intermediate
-When Genius failed
-Irrational Exuberance

submitted by MasterCookSwag to investing [link] [comments]

The Bloomberg Finance Lab

The Bloomberg Terminal (aka Bloomberg Professional Services) connects finance professionals to a dynamic network of information, people, and ideas. At the core of this network is the ability to deliver real-time data to finance professionals around the world.
The main value added services provided by Bloomberg Terminal are:
  1. Data
  2. News
  3. Analytics
These services are provided through innovative, proprietary technology, that quickly and accurately provides financial information to individuals and across enterprises around the world.
A world leader in providing market data information across the globe through its websites, apps and dedicated feeds and software products, Bloomberg offers a variety of tools available on free and paid basis, allowing finance professionals to use them in their research, analysis and related trading activities. Bloomberg’s coverage includes all possible financial securities ranging from equities, fixed income, derivatives, commodities, forex and OTC products, across the globe.

Bloomberg website:

The official Bloomberg website offers a wealth of free and subscription based tools and utilities, most offering customized views as per regions/markets.

Symbol Lookup Service:

Introduced couple of years back, Bloomberg Open Symbology tool offers Symbol lookup service and mapping of different symbols (SEDOL, CUSIP, ISIN, Stock exchange ticker, etc.) at global level. Individual traders as well as large investment firms having a need to consolidate data sourced from multiple sources with different symbols use this service. For e.g. a mutual fund company may take 2 different data feeds – one from Bloomberg containing Bloomberg symbol and other from Stock exchange containing local ticker. Symbology service enables cross referencing to validate data across two sources with different tickers.
Apart from the generic Open Symbology service, the widely followed Bloomberg symbols can be accessed through its dedicated symbol search tool.

Bloomberg Professional Products & Services:

The paid professional products and tools available from Bloomberg offer coverage across 360+ exchanges, 24000+ companies, global currency markets, and includes recently launched bitcoin coverage. These products and tools today are used by more than 315,000 subscribers across 175 countries, demonstrating the depth and variety of offerings from Bloomberg.
Bloomberg Market data terminal remains the most saleable product for both individual and enterprise use. A good 2 pager Getting Started Guide is available for introduction to financial analysis tools available within the Bloomberg Terminal. Apart from usual charts, graphs, technical indicators and market data coverage, one of the key selling points of Bloomberg Terminals is its instant messaging feature which enables easy communication across individuals, dedicated workgroups and even Bloomberg representatives for assistance.
Bloomberg Briefs: A dedicated service in the form of digital newsletters for the global financial markets, Bloomberg Brief offers insights into sector or region specific areas in PDF format.
Briefs for following categories are published daily – Bankruptcy & Restructuring, Economics, Economics Asia, Economics Europe, London, Municipal Market and Oil. Publication for other categories is weekly – China, Clean Energy & Carbon, Financial Regulation, Hedge Funds Europe, Hedge Funds, Leveraged Finance, Mergers, Private Equity, Structured Notes and Technical Strategies.
Such wide varieties of tools offered by Bloomberg come with lots of portability. All website based functionality can be accessed through standard browsers on mobiles and tablets, and even professional products offer portability for mobile and remote access through desktops, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

Bloomberg Enterprise Solutions

At the enterprise level, Bloomberg offers dedicated data feeds, pricing, reference and market data, news and information services to meet the needs of large financial enterprises employing financial analysts, traders and researchers. The Bloomberg trading solutions, offer connectivity and integration for buy side and sell side institutional clients. These find usage in complementing the OMS (Order management system), and recent EMS (Execution management system), for trade execution.
N L Dalmia has set up Mumbai’s first Bloomberg Finance Lab with 12 Bloomberg terminals, offering students extremely focused and high end knowledge programs with a high degree of practical learning and on-the-job applicability. Learning mba in mumbai from N L Dalmia is a step towards boosting one's career.
submitted by dipika20 to MBAinIndiaExplained [link] [comments]

The Bloomberg Finance Lab Launched at N L Dalmia Campus Mumbai

The Bloomberg Terminal (aka Bloomberg Professional Services) connects finance professionals to a dynamic network of information, people, and ideas. At the core of this network is the ability to deliver real-time data to finance professionals around the world.
The main value added services provided by Bloomberg Terminal are:
  1. Data
  2. News
  3. Analytics
These services are provided through innovative, proprietary technology, that quickly and accurately provides financial information to individuals and across enterprises around the world.
A world leader in providing market data information across the globe through its websites, apps and dedicated feeds and software products, Bloomberg offers a variety of tools available on free and paid basis, allowing finance professionals to use them in their research, analysis and related trading activities. Bloomberg’s coverage includes all possible financial securities ranging from equities, fixed income, derivatives, commodities, forex and OTC products, across the globe.

Bloomberg website:

The official Bloomberg website offers a wealth of free and subscription based tools and utilities, most offering customized views as per regions/markets.

Symbol Lookup Service:

Introduced couple of years back, Bloomberg Open Symbology tool offers Symbol lookup service and mapping of different symbols (SEDOL, CUSIP, ISIN, Stock exchange ticker, etc.) at global level. Individual traders as well as large investment firms having a need to consolidate data sourced from multiple sources with different symbols use this service. For e.g. a mutual fund company may take 2 different data feeds – one from Bloomberg containing Bloomberg symbol and other from Stock exchange containing local ticker. Symbology service enables cross referencing to validate data across two sources with different tickers.
Apart from the generic Open Symbology service, the widely followed Bloomberg symbols can be accessed through its dedicated symbol search tool.

Bloomberg Professional Products & Services:

The paid professional products and tools available from Bloomberg offer coverage across 360+ exchanges, 24000+ companies, global currency markets, and includes recently launched bitcoin coverage. These products and tools today are used by more than 315,000 subscribers across 175 countries, demonstrating the depth and variety of offerings from Bloomberg.
Bloomberg Market data terminal remains the most saleable product for both individual and enterprise use. A good 2 pager Getting Started Guide is available for introduction to financial analysis tools available within the Bloomberg Terminal. Apart from usual charts, graphs, technical indicators and market data coverage, one of the key selling points of Bloomberg Terminals is its instant messaging feature which enables easy communication across individuals, dedicated workgroups and even Bloomberg representatives for assistance.
Bloomberg Briefs: A dedicated service in the form of digital newsletters for the global financial markets, Bloomberg Brief offers insights into sector or region specific areas in PDF format.
Briefs for following categories are published daily – Bankruptcy & Restructuring, Economics, Economics Asia, Economics Europe, London, Municipal Market and Oil. Publication for other categories is weekly – China, Clean Energy & Carbon, Financial Regulation, Hedge Funds Europe, Hedge Funds, Leveraged Finance, Mergers, Private Equity, Structured Notes and Technical Strategies.
Such wide varieties of tools offered by Bloomberg come with lots of portability. All website based functionality can be accessed through standard browsers on mobiles and tablets, and even professional products offer portability for mobile and remote access through desktops, laptops, tablets and smartphones.

Bloomberg Enterprise Solutions

At the enterprise level, Bloomberg offers dedicated data feeds, pricing, reference and market data, news and information services to meet the needs of large financial enterprises employing financial analysts, traders and researchers. The Bloomberg trading solutions, offer connectivity and integration for buy side and sell side institutional clients. These find usage in complementing the OMS (Order management system), and recent EMS (Execution management system), for trade execution.
NLDIMSR has set up Mumbai’s first Bloomberg Finance Lab with 12 Bloomberg terminals, offering students extremely focused and high end knowledge programs with a high degree of practical learning and on-the-job applicability.
submitted by dipika20 to MBAIndia [link] [comments]

[GUIDE] The way I came up to have live Bitcoin and others cryptocurrencies prices on your own Excel portifolio!

The original post is on steemit, but I can't post steemit links in this subreddit how here is the tutorial in text:
I've seen some tutorials on how to import Coinmarketcap data into excel, but most of them are a little too time consuming as you need to create a new worksheet for every different coin. Here is the way I found that works the best for me. We will be creating a custom excel funcion. Here is the step by step guide:
Edit: I've just update the article to include variants of the custom function for data other than price. (Market Cap, Volume, Supply, etc).
First, create a new file (or use your own portifolio workbook) and on the "Data" tab click on "New Query" -> "From Other Sources" -> "From Web".
Past this link: "https://api.coinmarketcap.com/v1/ticke" and click OK.
A new widow will pop up. Click on "To Table" at the top left corner and hit OK.
Click on the small grey box with two arrows pointing in opposite directions next to "Column1" and press OK. Here you can select what info do you want excel to load. I personally load all of them as you can later retreive any data you want from this source.
Now click on "Close & Load"
A new worksheet will be created. Rename it to "CMC". Note: It's important to rename it exactly to "CMC", we will use a macro that will search for a "CMC" worksheet.
Select the first cell of the first column and click on the "Data" tab -> Refresh All -> "Connection Properties" -> Select "Refresh every" and set the interval you want your prices updated (I set to 20) and select "Refresh data when opening the file"
Press ALT+F11 and a new widnow should open up. Now create a new module as shown below.
Past this code:
Function CMCPrice(CMCTokenSymbol As String)
Application.Volatile
CMCPrice = WorksheetFunction.VLookup(CMCTokenSymbol, Worksheets("CMC").Range("$C:$M"), 3, 0)
End Function
Now it's all set. The code above added a custom function to excel. You can now retrieve the price of any coin registered on Coinmarketcap. To retrieve a price from Bitcoin for example, type =TokenPrice("BTC") on the cell you want the price at.
I hope I've helped you! :D
Note: Remember to save your workbook as a macro enabled workbook or else the macro will not be saved.
submitted by AACoimbra to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Report I by Stablecoin Research Institute - The Difficulties and Future of Stablecoin

Report I by Stablecoin Research Institute - The Difficulties and Future of Stablecoin
https://preview.redd.it/pnnmh4gt6ng21.jpg?width=1080&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3a94528a71b7c6e2db9ea746116afeec8d7b1c51

Bitcoin was originally conceived to be outside the fiat money system as an electronic cash system for a new world. However, at present, the currency standard is still the fiat money standard. The envisaged bitcoin-based settlement system still has no foundation or a wide consensus on the value of the currency standard.
As a compromise, many stablecoins provide a temporary solution for the ecology through a 1:1 anchorage of U.S. dollar, with third-party bank custody becoming mainstream. The rapid growth of Tether and the loss of market share in the face of competition have added more uncertainty to the current market. The decentralization scheme provided by MakerDAO was slightly weak in the initial competition but the reputation gradually accumulated. As the market deepens, cryptocurrencies based on more regional legal currencies are gradually coming online, and people are beginning to try different chain payment attempts.
This article refers to the article Stable Digital Currency Manual by co-founder of Zhibao Mikko, trying to explore the difficulties and future of stablecoin from a currency perspective.

The Difficulties of Bitcoin Settlement System
When it comes to stablecoins, the original idea of Bitcoin has to be mentioned ---- a peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Over the past decade, a series of expansions have been made in the blockchain technology and Bitcoin. In people's minds, Bitcoin will be a new generation of the world's monetary system, independent of the fiat money (US dollar) system, to de-intermediate transaction transfers and asset storage, to eliminate asset losses caused by the bank's centralized risk, and put an end to the harvest of wealth brought about by hyperinflation.
In reality, Bitcoin does have somehow established its own trading system - such as black market transactions in the dark network. Dark network commodity trading uses Bitcoin as a medium, and buyers and sellers are also happy to configure a portion of Bitcoin as a value reserve. On the other hand, Bitcoin is the most common trading medium among cryptocurrency exchanges for a long time before the popularity of USDT. Some people said, “Bitcoin is the real stablecoin.” In addition to observing the fluctuations in the value of the fiat money, the traders of various cryptocurrencies will also pay attention to the relationship between cryptocurrency and the bitcoin trading pair. But in this case, this so-called bitcoin-based trading system still has several problems.

https://preview.redd.it/679bncm37ng21.jpg?width=788&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=dbbb630b286a87eb3b1a38ac48cabac4b653bf83

The first is the currency standard: even if some people regard Bitcoin as a gift, they have long believed that Bitcoin will eventually level the volatility and increase the index, but even the so-called beliefs are usually denominated in fiat money (US dollar, Euro, RMB). That is to say, the first problem with Bitcoin is that there is no pricing power. In other words, Bitcoin cannot perform the settlement function extensively in the holder's daily life. The daily benchmarking consensus based on Bitcoin in a wide range is that it doesn't exist at all.
In China, a Coke is 3 RMB, and in the US it is 1 US dollar. The two are under their respective independent settlement systems. If the person in one of the systems happens to come to another system, such as a Chinese who first bought a Coke in the United States, the first reaction is likely to be a cup of 6.71 yuan. Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency does not have a similar settlement system under the independent monetary framework.
In the case that it is not possible to participate extensively in daily pricing, the currency standard is the fiat money standard. For members of the cryptocurrency community, the actual fiat money-based thinking does not directly affect the willingness of buyers and sellers to use Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies for physical purchases, but when Bitcoin’s price against fiat money falls into huge downward fluctuations, it rejects the situation of receiving cryptocurrencies is inevitable.
So the second question directly promotes the strong demand for stablecoins: currency price fluctuations. On the other hand, it should be realized that Bitcoin does not have a complete settlement system and a broad and stable price consensus based on the system; on the other hand, since the initial definition of Bitcoin was an innovation independent of the traditional financial system, even if it is far from the original concept, the community consensus based on the decentralization and token incentives is different from the traditional financial system.
So for a long time, the market could not price bitcoin with the traditional asset framework. The triumph of 2017 has made the society more aware and acknowledged about Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency systems. The Chicago Mercantile Exchange CME has put on bitcoin futures at the end of the year. At the same time as government regulation gradually intervenes, the OTC exchange network outside the market is also getting better and better, and the pricing of bitcoin is starting to break away from fanaticism. At the end of 2017, the isolationism of various countries has become stronger, the pace of interest rate hikes of the FED has sped up, and global asset preferences have also undergone subtle changes towards safe-haven assets. China’s domestic capital has advocated “cash is the king” and Bitcoin has entered a down cycle.
As noted above, upside volatility can also encourage traditional merchants to participate in speculation, but downside volatility has caused most merchants to lose their willingness to treat Bitcoin as a currency. In 2018, with the increasingly strong bear market in the cryptocurrency world, the demand for safe-haven and stable-price trading media in the encryption community has skyrocketed, and countless stablecoin projects have been launched. At the same time, Tether, which occupied the absolute market share of stablecoins in 2017, continued to expand against the trend of black box operations.

Third Party Intermediary - Compromise of Fiat Money Stablecoins
The hot currency-backed stablecoin is undoubtedly a compromise of the cryptocurrency market against traditional currencies.
As Nakamoto said in the Bitcoin White Paper, “trade on the Internet almost requires financial institutions to act as trusted third parties to process electronic payment information. Although such systems work well in most cases, such systems are still endogenously constrained by the weakness of the 'trust based model'... We really need an electronic payment system that is based on cryptography rather than credit, making any parties that have reached an agreement can make payments directly, eliminating the need for third-party intermediaries."
Although the article refers to the payment process in the transaction, it is the same in terms of collateral custody. The trust of third-party financial institutions in this mode is inevitable. Trust means that when the custodian bank secretly misappropriates collateral or bankrupts for any reason, the user's assets will be difficult to guarantee, abbreviated as SPOF single point of failure.
But the good news is that when the market competition is fully carried out, the user as a whole is divided into several different groups, and different fiat money stablecoin products with different audit processes under different banks are used. A single point of failure of an individual project does not affect the continued operation of other stablecoin products; and the community response to a single company's evil or potential evil is greatly magnified as the number of competing products increases.
Taking Tether as an example, the giants who once occupied more than 95% of the market share of the stablecoin market finally ignited the trust crisis in the long-term refusal of transparent auditing, and the market share plummeted. In the foreseeable future, Tether will gradually liberalize its transparency and optimize its relationship with users to maintain its current market share. The stablecoin competing products that continue to enter the market will form a continuous multi-disciplinary force on existing projects in the market to promote market improvement and relief centralized risk.

The Rise and Blockage of Tether
The real rise of stablecoin is actually symbolized by Tether's exponential growth in 2017. From the eve of the dawn of 2017 to the day after 20 months, Tether's market value has skyrocketed from less than $7 million to more than $2.8 billion, a 400-fold increase.

USDT Year Chart (green - currency price; blue - market value)

In 2018, the hot stablecoin market, USDT's exclusive access to the stablecoin, and stablecoin’s widespread dissatisfaction with the rejection of third-party audits attracted many competitors. In March, True USD (TUSD) was transparently managed. The name entered the competition. Around October, stablecoins such as USDCoin (USDC), Gemini Dollar (GUSD) and Paxos Standard (PAX), which had strong background, compliance audit and good asset transparency, went online. At about the same time, perhaps the pressure from friends and merchants has soared. It is a coincidence that Tether has successively experienced a series of scandals and then the price collapsed in mid-October, and evaporated 40% of the market value in the following month. After a series of cycles, the situation gradually eased.
The four consecutive stablecoins mentioned above seized the market share and expanded rapidly in the next few months. In the month before the deadline, Tether's stablecoin market share was stable at around 70%, and the remaining market share was occupied by the top four newcomers. In the process of grabbing the market, there were fluctuations, including the only US compliance encryption. The progress of the USDC issued by the currency exchange COINBASE is the most eye-catching, and its market value accounts for about 10% of the overall stablecoin market at the time of writing.

https://preview.redd.it/wk591kvn7ng21.jpg?width=731&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=39a89384cf7b848f50fee6884e109038ac0dc6c6

A simple conclusion is that Tether can still be stable even after the crisis, thanks to Tether's first-mover advantage in its existing position on global exchanges and the high liquidity it represents. The three basic functions of money are pricing units, value storage, and trading media, while liquidity is their common subtext.
The unit price provided by a currency lacking liquidity cannot obtain broad consensus of money users. The lack of consensus leads to price disorder, and the currency thus loses the valuation value. As a value storage and trading medium, it will miss trading object and depth due to low liquidity and cannot complete the basic function as a currency. Although the new four-dollar collateral stabilized currency occupies its place in the start of the competition with Tether, Tether sits on a whole bull market with a trading history that has a relatively complete trading pair coverage in the world's major exchanges; In addition to the full coverage of the exchange, USDT also has a sound OTC network construction, providing the most direct portal for stocks and potential incremental users. Under the superposition, Tether's endogenous and exogenous liquidity advantages are particularly evident, and even in the case of black box scandals, it can still occupy a fairly strong market share. But with the gradual gradual competition, peer supervision and the gradual enrichment of user-selectable products, Tether's fault-tolerant space for future strategies is not as optimistic as imagined.

HUSD - Self-contained Stablecoins
In response to the October crisis in Tether, the Fire Currency Exchange launched a HUSD Stabilization Coin program.
In this scheme, the Firecoin users will automatically convert to HUSD when they recharge the PAX, TUSD, USDC, and GUSD. HUSD has no actual issuance process, but simply a unit of pricing corresponding to four types of stablecoin recharge. After the user converts one of the stablecoins into HUSD, he or she can freely choose any one to redeem.
The program not only helps users to spread the centralization risk of a single fiat money stablecoin, but also helps the four stable coins to complete the group on the fire currency exchange to cope with the existing liquidity competitive advantage of the USDT. But on the other hand, the user's use of HUSD is based on trust in the fire currency exchange, in other words another single point of failure risk. Therefore, in order to dilute the risk of centralization, it is still necessary to transparently deal with the specific schemes of the fire currency exchange, and the supervision of the fire coins by the community, especially other exchanges.

Decentralization Breakout of Stablecoin
At present, a number of currency-backed stablecoins, led by USDT, cover almost all of the market capitalization and liquidity of the stablecoin market.
In this case, MakerDAO's DAI is extraordinarily precious. The DAI Stabilized Currency System generates a stablecoin DAI through over-collateralization of cryptocurrency. Most of the functions within the system are implemented or planned through the deployment of smart contracts, such as chain generation and redemption of stable coins, management of collateral, and so on. In addition to the DAI as a stablecoin, as a dual currency system, there is another governance currency called MKR in MakerDAO. Governance currency holders support the system's decentralized governance functions while enjoying the overall benefits of the system, and provide additional funding buffers for the system in events such as abnormal currency fluctuations.
In MakerDAO's overall vision, the system first endorses the credit of the stablecoin through the chain of excess collateral, while the interest generated by the credit function (the essence of DAI generated by the mortgage cryptocurrency is a lending process), the collateral under abnormal fluctuations The profit from the flat penalty triggered by Ping and the more financial derivative function to support the system's self-operation.
One of the biggest conflicts between the community and the cryptocurrency collateral currency is the risk exposure of the collateral in the warehouse when the cryptocurrency generates a stablecoin. Although in theory the users of the stablecoin can be separated from the mortgagor, the mortgagor can be a more risk-tolerant group, such as an eager borrower, a professional user of financial instruments, etc., but since the stablecoin is issued The identity of the person itself is subject to a natural limitation based on the degree of risk aversion, and its supply has an additional limit.
On the other hand, there is a limited source of information about Ethereum as a single collateral: the mortgagor is limited to holders of Ethereum. In MakerDAO's plan, the multi-collateral version of the system will gradually improve with iteration, and the achievement of this program will effectively reduce the risk of the MakerDAO collateral asset portfolio and increase the potential DAI generation limit. Ample supply and liquidity of the DAI will help activate the system in more possibilities on the market.

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Compared to the competition between the four newcomers and the USDT, the position of MakerDAO is quite different. If the user's choice between the four newcomers and the USDT is a trade-off between liquidity (product usability) and security, then between USDT and DAI is liquidity (product usability) and decentralized belief. The trade-off. As far as the market is concerned, MakerDAO's dual currency system seems to explain better how the project side can continue the project through the circulation of profits. Many of the fiat money-backed stablecoin projects have always wondered whether they will realize their own coinage rights in the future and thus harm the user's property rights.
As a successful decentralized stablecoin project, MakerDAO is one of the most successful projects on Ethereum. This is both a tribute to the MakerDAO development path: the development of other projects (dApp) on the Ethereum and the overall robustness of the ecology. As the second generation of the public chain, Ethereum pioneered the concept of smart contract, which is a milestone in the development of application on the chain. However, in the course of many years of development, the performance of the main network and the fragmentation technology have been delayed. So although MakerDAO claims that DAI will have many chain advantages as ERC20 tokens, it seems that the eApp side of Ethereum has not seen a good development momentum.
It is worth mentioning that in the performance of the public chain and dApp development, the EOS public chain has developed rapidly since the launch of the main network in 2018. If EOS has a stablecoin project like MakerDAO, and can properly handle potential security issues in the operation process (such as the potential risks caused by the scalability of the contract, etc.), there is much to be done. After all, in addition to seeking cooperation under the chain, the pricing system of cryptocurrency is more important to find and create niches that belong only to the world of cryptocurrency. A robust dApp ecology with a constant need for stable coins or the only possible form of this niche.

Choice Outside the U.S. Dollar
The few stablecoins currently circulating the most are anchoring the US dollar. There is no doubt that the status of the dollar in the current world currency system is irreplaceable. The bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies described in the beginning of the article lack the independent settlement system, and the US dollar is the extreme of the other end – the currency with the most complete settlement framework in the world.
From the gold standard to the Bretton Woods system, to the current global commodity and foreign exchange trading system centered on the US dollar-oil trading system, the three functions of currency pricing, storage and circulation are reflected in the US dollar. As the currency with the most universal purchasing power and deep trading depth, the US dollar has naturally become the primary anchor for many stablecoins that pursue international influence. The dependence of the stablecoin on the US dollar is a last resort. While stabilizing the dollar, the stablecoin not only enjoys the liquidity advantage brought by the dollar, but also inherits the volatility risk of the dollar itself. Although the US dollar is still the most trustworthy currency on a macro level, if A's main payment scenario is in Country A, and Country A's currency has a large appreciation of the US dollar due to market factors, then the asset holding the anchored US dollar. Bringing a higher base point risk to A.
Among the many non-US dollar currencies, the yen is one of the most distinctive currencies. The Japanese government has a positive attitude towards blockchain technology. In April 2017, it recognized the legal payment status of Bitcoin and formulated a series of laws and regulations for the exchange. At the same time, Japan is also one of the most active participants in the cryptocurrency market. At the end of 2018, Japanese IT giant GMO Internet announced that it plans to introduce a yen-linked cryptocurrency in 2019 to prepare for the next phase of cross-border settlement. The emergence of a liquid currency-stable yen stablecoin will not only help Japanese crypto community members to better participate in daily market behavior, but also help cross-border currency settlement. In addition, due to Japan’s domestic economic structure, monetary policy has maintained ultra-low interest rates for a long time. Under this premise, investors are more willing to invest in sovereign countries with higher interest rates, especially the United States. When the United States is in turmoil, funds are largely returned to the yen, which has a very low risk attribute, which raises the yen and lowers the dollar. Therefore, the emergence of the yen stablecoin can also provide a better safe haven for holders of USD stabilized coins such as USDT in the potential dollar crisis.
In addition to the yen, the private sector or the government of Australia, the euro zone and other countries are also involved in the development and deployment of their domestic currency stablecoin. While the vast majority will still be a similarly centralized bank hosting model, it should still be seen as an improvement and rationally expecting a more equitable and efficient system.

The Future Direction of the Stablecoin
As mentioned at the beginning of the article, the original idea of the cryptocurrency community for Bitcoin was to create a decentralized financial system that would be independent of the traditional monetary system. However, due to the lack of an independent and complete settlement system, or the lack of a broad currency-based pricing consensus, the cryptocurrency world cannot be formed into a real monetary system, and it has to rely on the attachment to the US dollar or other currencies to achieve long-term scenarios. Valuation of prices in cryptocurrencies, etc. Although Bitcoin itself has the believer of the currency standard, the foundation of the belief is mostly based on the re-exponential rise of the price of the bitcoin, which is still the thinking of fiat money.
Given that there is a consensus that goods can only be denominated in currency A in the payment and settlement system of country A, if the cryptocurrency world wants to form an independent payment settlement system, the best pricing unit for the purchase should be cryptocurrency. The anchoring of the U.S. dollar and other fiat money is just to use the currency attribute (otherwise the currency credit cannot be established), and will destruct the consensus to regard cryptocurrency as the best pricing unit and establish an independent monetary system (the cost of convenience). The power of habit is hard to overcome, and the habit of paying the currency of a chain certainly needs to be achieved by the widespread purchase of assets on the chain. This process requires gradual improvement of the payment scenario between stablecoin systems and dApps.
The cryptocurrency eco-walls we mentioned above are based on the hope of this exclusive chain-based settlement system. The simple dApp on the chain is obviously not enough. We also have two topics to be studied in the chain payment scenario and asset chaining. Users must complete the process from chain to chain and back to chain to integrate cryptocurrency pricing into everyday habitual thinking.
Then, the stablecoin will gradually deepen into people's daily life after several decades, while the banknotes gradually withdraw from the trading scene, and the sub-generation gradually accepts the new cryptocurrency value settlement system.


Reference:
Stable Digital Currency Manual (http://wisburg.com/2018/07/03/稳定数字货币手册/)
submitted by Starteos to eos [link] [comments]

The Technical characteristic of MOL

Design principle 1.1 Blockless
The block and its block producer (node) are inherently jailing the performance of blockchain, all the transactions across the world in a time span of are waiting to be molded in to the block by its permissionless pseudo-elected node.
The challenges
a. Think of the occasionally velocity of Transactions, be it the Chinese spring festival where everyone need to send red envelope (aka Cash) to everyone on a single day, million of people could invariably send simultaneously,how big will be the block, or else Transactions need to wait hours and days, in the case of jam on Bitcoin and Ethereum;
b. Undue and unjusted power is vested with the block producer (aka miner), the power of miner has almost eliminated the spirit of fairness advocated in the peer to peer system design of BitTorrent, whose true belief was everyone helping everyone reciprocally in contributing their free asset. The fact that by hiking the tip (aka transaction fee) a transaction is getting superiority over others, is not favorably prone to technology adoption by the mass, whose transaction of transaction are free with the fiat currency in case of micro and macro payment.
c. Cumbersome and exorbitant process of block producer selection, to chose a node with consensus to produce block, Bitcoin’s POW will cost billion of dollars equivalent energy and hardware resources, which itself is not economically sensible and futuristically sustainable. In order to reach consensus, the consensus itself has been innovated irrevocably multifold, POW with Asics-resilient Screcpt, X11, Cryptonight and a serious of POS[5] 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 on peercoin[6], Nxt, Qutm[7], and of course DPOS with BTS, Steem, EOS, BFT club, dBFT, fBFT, pBFT and a combination of above namely hybrid, consensus innovation has to go on and on if blockchain is built on block, that is the heritage from Satoshi, who disrupted the industry, but why cant world exist a way of disrupting the disrupt after 10 years long.
Hence, for building MOL, a public blockchain, we favor the blockless way of IOTA[8] and Nano[9] (Rai blockchain), let transaction be the unit, getting rid of block, make it blockless.
MOL Protocols 1.2 Smart contract
Both IOTA and Nano has a fallacy in terms of supporting the smart contract, which MOL believe it to be a invariably and unverifiable part of a public blockchain, we start innovating from the deck of DAG structure, contemplating the array of account of “contract account”,which has the similar function as the normal account: being open, send, receive and change. But the contract account is controlled by code, similar to the Ethereum smart contract.
Every Contract account has a separate chain, start with its own, each send and receive transaction compose the series of its own blockless blockchain, just as the formation of account blockchain.
1.3 Tokenization
From the UGC (User Generated Content) to UGC (User generated Currency), the irreversibly inelastic demand enlighten the MOL team devote their research and development resource to tokenization for Dapps.
a. MOL will extend the stack of Ethereum EVM to support MOL’s DAG block structure; hence it will be easier for solidity contract’s migration to MOL.
b. MOL further encapsulate the remix into a more user friendly GUI, with only parameter of “ string, symbol, supply” to create one’s own token, being the security token or utility token.
c. Token is created with smart contract, genesis supply are distributed to the normal account at formula or ico conversion ration define by undertaker.
Community https://community.mol.one
Webset https://www.mol.one
Telegram https://un75.com/MolOfficial
Whitepaper https://www.mol.one/static/assets/Whitepaper-ZH.pdf
E-mail [email protected]
Twitter https://twitter.com/MOL_Blockchain
Facebook https://www.facebook.com/MOLBlockchain
Sina micro-blog http://weibo.com/MOLBlockchain
Reddit https://www.reddit.com/useMOL_Blockchain
Instagram https://www.instagram.com/mol_blockchain
Yotube https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCW4-HeQrdzaBQ0JtVDuEfCA?view_as=public
Slack https://mol-blockchain.slack.com
Bitcointalk https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2372491
submitted by MOL_Blockchain to u/MOL_Blockchain [link] [comments]

More Questions & Answers from our AMA sessions (Pt. 2)

Today we’re following up on Jason’s post about our Ask Me Anythingsession by publishing another transcript of seven questions and answers asked during our live broadcast on YouTube. We also answered all questions asked prior to the AMA on our subreddit. A big thank you to our fantastic community for coming up with some very insightful questions!
Here’s a recording of the full live broadcast: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66KeuA05XOA

(8) What are the timelines that we’re thinking about regarding transitioning from alpha to beta? When are we going to be on mainnet?

JASON: Alpha and Beta are terms loosely defined. We declared alpha being the multi-stage user input phase where we’re still running at this stage of alpha on testnet. We’re building out the feature set of the protocol layer as well as middleware and SaaS with our customers together and getting feedback. We’re going to have several series of this, but we’re also going to be moving to mainnet reasonably soon as well.
BENJAMIN: If we’re building OpenST 0.9.3 now, OpenST 0.9.4 focuses on two things: the token holder contracts that allow the users to own the tokens in a full web 3.0 sense, while still enabling applications to integrate with them easily. So that’s an important feature that we want to get right before we move to mainnet because on testnet it’s easier. I mean it’s a testnet. On mainnet, we want to have the protocol upgrade version and the governance better worked out and implemented. That’s in OpenST 0.9.4. Then for OpenST 0.9.5 at the platform level, we want to do two things. We want to work on the multi-chain aspect. Right now we use one utility chain and look to improve the code there that it can be any number of utility chains with some constraints. Also, work to move the utility, these auxiliary systems, these utility chains that carry the burden of computation away from Ethereum mainnet, make them proof of stake systems.
Right now for testing purposes, we’re running them on “Proof of Authority.” The beautiful part about OpenST Mosaic is that it’s agnostic about what system it runs on, given some constraints again or assumptions that need to be accurate. Moving to mainnet, we want to also move the auxiliary systems to more robust POS, proof of stake systems as layer one.
JASON: A lot of people will jump from there: From ‘testing’ to ‘when will customers be going live’. The distinction we wanted to draw out is that there’s a number of features that are being built over an extended period at the protocol level, at the middleware level, at the SaaS and even at the consumer level. A lot of it will be about when a particular project a company wants to jump on works, so when they think that the feature set that’s there at that moment in time is enough for them to want to launch for their end users.
We will be on mainnet sooner versus later, and then we will start working on the right customers deploying at the right time, and then building with more customers and more customers and more POCs and more Alphas based on user input.

(9) There’s already talk about Alpha Phase III. What is it? What’s going to be involved in that challenge?

JASON: There’ll be some twist regarding how we run the challenge. The big thing to look forward to at this point in addition to ongoing developments on the protocol with different APIs and updates and SDKs is that, also, the significant feature element for Alpha III is the first consumer OST wallet API. This will enable for the first time that in an integration of OST that you’ll actually be able to have individual users and look at personal wallets to see the token transfers in those wallets, and not just see a macro view of the transfers either in OST KIT or on OST VIEW.
BENJAMIN: People will notice that that goes hand-in-hand with the token holder contracts, so while this is not yet the standalone wallet, it’s the first step to building that. Then at the protocol layer, we’re developing the token holder contracts.

(10) Question from Sokefra: Why as a customer would I want to allow atomic swaps, or swapping around your token for interoperability? If I use my branded token as a loyalty coin, it’s because I want repeat customers. Allowing trades works against this and my customer may use them elsewhere. Why would we want them to use the last one?

JASON: I think one is to distinguish between the historical black box loyalty programs that I think most people are familiar with regarding airline reward programs or hotel programs; where you earn these points, but they decide how many points you earn. They can change the rules on you at any moment in time. There’s no transparency as to how much the points are worth, and it’s entirely decided by this central authority, first of all, whether you can spend the coins at airlines. Let’s say you can’t buy a reward ticket for this flight, and then also how much it costs to use them.
What we see with the decentralized internet and with cryptocurrency is a straightforward principle: if it’s yours, you own it, and you can do whatever you want with it. That is going to open up all sorts of new possibilities — if someone owns the currency, they earned it, they own it, and it’s up to them to decide whether they want to spend it within your economy or to spend it elsewhere. Now, that’s not to say that companies might not set up rules for how they wanted to operate with other companies. There might be various layers of convenience factors, where if you as an individual wish to unstake your branded token and spend it somewhere else, you might have to go through a process of first taking, for example, your Unsplash token, unstaking it, getting OST, going and actually converting it to something else.
There might be providers who offer convenience by offering a wallet which allows you to do that, and to exchange or an atomic swap that enables you to do that. You can expect that that’s opportunities where there could be transaction fees or permissions taking place that the free market will help determine this as well as companies will in some ways protect some of their interests. I guess what to say to everyone is keep an open mind about it, and also expect that there will be more and more decentralization. There’ll be more and more individual ownership of their stuff, their things, and that it’s a train that’s coming, and we all have to figure out how to play well within that.
I think just as with a lot of technology innovations that provide power back to the users, that open up more customer benefits, companies that take the lead, that offer better customer experiences, better customer service tends to gain competitive advantages. The second most valuable company in the world is Amazon, and Amazon’s always led by providing the absolute best customer service, take your return no matter what, even if they lose money on it because over the long-term you’ve won with your customers.
I think companies that look very far-sighted and look very customer-first like that will say, “Forget about the old way of doing loyalty programs. If we allow ourselves to be part of ‘you earn it, you own it,’ and we allow ourselves to be part of a broader ecosystem… and we figure out nice ways to play with other companies, and we prove that there are reasons why people should earn and spend within our system and elsewhere, we’ll make it easy for them and maybe even take a cut of it. If we play well within that, that’s a huge opportunity to take a leadership position in the next generation of commerce.”

(11) With OST Kit it’s easy to launch a token, but why should I do it? Could you sum up what is so great for a company, app or community to use a token?

JASON: I think a couple of things. The word token in history is symbolic of ownership. It’s symbolic of wealth. The “tokenize the world” concept when it comes to companies and apps and businesses and web services, a lot of it comes to thinking about how could you incentivize and motivate your users or reward your users for taking specific actions that benefit your overall ecosystem and your economy? How do you also use a token to monetize otherwise hard to monetize transactions especially when you talk about micropayments or micro-transfers between individuals?
If you do something small like uploading something or submitting a photo, and if you were to transfer a couple of pennies to someone in real fiat, the transaction fee would be too high, and so how do you do things like that, and enable people to accumulate, that over time by doing a lot of these little actions you contribute to the community, but you also can make some money from it. A big part of it is allowing companies to create a full-cycle economy where you have people who are earning the token, people who are buying the token, ways to spend the token, and then building these loops that keep the economy flowing within your marketplace. That all comes down to if you’ve got this velocity going on within your economy, your ecosystem, that creates stickiness, and it creates engagement.
It also allows companies to, as I said before, to rely less on the big guys, Facebook, Google or customer acquisition. Simply put, if you can motivate your users by giving them $2 or $3 as an incentive for taking action that benefits your economy, most companies would instead do that than spend $10 to acquire a user on Facebook.

(12) The way you scale is by using side chain mechanisms, but are these side chains decentralized? Do they live on a network or are they not on OST servers?

BENJAMIN: That has always been important. One part of the answer why we started looking into what we call OpenST side chains — but the understanding of it changes a bit once we looked deeper into what OpenST Mosaic does, but let’s get onto that later — is that it helps with data availability. It’s crucial that if you are starting to siphon off some of the data away from Ethereum mainnet to get to that scalability, that that other data is still available so that anyone can start from genesis for that subset of transactions and validate it its way. In that sense, yes, it is decentralized because it’s even decentralizing away from Ethereum mainnet.
Then it splits into two questions. Remember that with OpenST Mosaic we’re building a layer two network and protocol that where the layer one of those utility chains actually is hosted by a set of companies presumably, and then maybe the foundation with the other partners that want to join, but it’s of interest to the end user of the application that that is a highly performant network. It is equally of interest to the end user that those parties who are just providing that availability cannot determine the outcome of what happens on the side chain. That’s why OpenST Mosaic is an open network of open sealers that is defined on Ethereum mainnet.
It’s essential to emphasize and to build that understanding that OpenST Mosaic brings all the definitions and all the value and all the economic finality back to Ethereum mainnet. We optimize it in such a way that that is asynchronous and that the burden of the computation is done on these auxiliary systems that are more performant. In that way, we leverage the security of proof of work in Ethereum to secure these auxiliary systems, and it’s that open set of sealers that defines what is finalized on those auxiliary systems. Because remember, in order to get to the actual value, we call it a value chain and a utility chain, to get to the real value you need to unstake it, and in order to unstake it you need to have a majority vote of what was true on the Ethereum mainnet to prove against that, stay true to that. Indeed, you had those tokens, and you’re willing to unstake them, and walk away with the value.
In that sense, maybe by construction, I’ve given my definition of decentralized here.
JASON: A simple way to think about that is if you’ve earned 100 Unsplash tokens, that earning of those tokens or transfer of those tokens to you happened on the OpenST side chain, which is in itself an open system. The way that it’s proven that actually, you’ve earned that equivalent amount of OST is that if you go to unstake it that the transaction that actually gives you the OST or if someone gives you something else instead that’s worth the same, that that transaction that makes that happen, that is happening on Ethereum and in a decentralized manner.
BENJAMIN: Important here also when you say proven is also the immutability of what has happened on those auxiliary systems. All the votes, all the blocks that have been proposed, they’re all provable against what those open sealers from OpenST Mosaic are publishing on Ethereum mainnet, and so any fraud or any attempt to revert what was finalized can be proven and the stake of those companies or whoever is proposing the blocks, whoever was trying to maybe defraud the OpenST Mosaic system as well, it’s a POS system, those proofs can be presented, and the stake can be taken away. In that sense, the immutability is also preserved for those auxiliary systems.

(13) If there’s a company that has already created their branded token and then OST ratio and that’s been set, how do you continue growing your economy with your user base? Bear in mind that it’s only a finite amount that you’ve already staked at the beginning.

JASON: There’s a couple of things embedded in this question. The simple way to think about it is that when you want to mint your branded tokens, you take OST, and then you create an equivalent amount of your branded token. It could be one to one, or you could set a conversion rate at the beginning of one to a hundred.
To put a straightforward example: Imagine you start off with $1,000 worth of OST, and you want to turn that into 10,000 of your token. You take it into a smaller denomination. If you have a large company, you don’t need to mint millions and millions of dollars worth of tokens or of OST worth of tokens.
We wanted it to be that you can grow as you grow, and so forth. The intent is that as your economy is growing and as your users are placing more demand, that they want more of your tokens, and so either they’re buying more of your tokens, or they’re earning more of your tokens. There’s always someone who’s paying for the token, either if it’s an incentive or a reward then typically you the company are paying for it. If it’s for a service, then the end user or the business that you’re transacting with is paying for it and then spending it to use it.
Then you go back, and you mint more of your token. You stake more OST and mint more of your tokens at that same conversion rate.
The question we often get is “what happens if the price of OST goes up?” The answer there is very similar to what happened when the price of Bitcoin went from $100 to $10,000: You need to buy fewer Bitcoin to create the same amount of value. In this case, you need to stake less OST to create the same value worth of your token as long as you’re setting prices within your economy the way that you want to set them.
Most people today still pay their rent in their local fiat, so if they’re earning tokens on Unsplash, they probably want to set the amount of Unsplash tokens that they’re charging for an action in USD and have it automatically convert to the number of Unsplash. That automatic conversion, we call it a price oracle, that happens, and that regardless of what’s happening to the price of OST going up or down, and that helps ensure that no matter whether OST is worth $1 or $10,000 or a million dollars per one OST that you don’t have to mint more and more of your tokens. Your users are still charging how much they want to charge for the service, and that’s driving your economy.

(14) A two-part question, what are we doing regarding increasing the price and where can we find OST. Hopefully, you have a plan for more exchanges?

JASON: I think those who have been around our project for a while know that we don’t comment about token price. We’ve tried to run from the very beginning a very professional project where OST is all about the technology, all about the solution, and ultimately all about customer success. We think being this essential fabric of the decentralized internet is a very massive, big vision. That will create lots of value over time, and that’s where we’re focused on. When people speculate on token prices and say, “Well, what about these other guys, who are out there hyping their coin left and right.” I always point to folks that if you looked at the internet in 1996, 1997, and 1998, 1999, 2000, the first five years of the internet 99% of the companies that were hyped like crazy back then do not exist today.
These are early days in blockchain, and what we’ve focused on is we are building real solutions, and token price for OST it’s not a focus with us. Our focus is to build something that customers want to use, and those customers will then go and need to buy OST to stake against minting their branded tokens. That’s the market force that is in effect there. OST needs to have a value. That’s why it’s listed on exchanges. It’s the only reason why it’s listed on exchanges, because it needs to have a market value so that customers can go and buy it and have a value assigned to it so that when you earn that Unsplash token, you know because of OpenST Mosaic and everything that goes into it how much that’s worth when you want to exit it and take it out of the system and put that money in your pocket, or in your crypto wallet, or whatever it is.
Now, in terms of exchanges, we also want to make sure that companies and persons who are working on OST, the developer teams around the world have great places to buy OST. When we move to mainnet, for instance, the developers will need to acquire OST to build their proof of concepts, and we’re committed to making sure that OST is available to purchase in the best places possible and the most popular exchanges in the world.
Watch the full live recording of our AMA on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66KeuA05XOA
All questions asked on Reddit prior to our AMA have now been answered by the team: Head over to our subreddit to read our responses.Is there anything else you’d like to know more about? Tweet to us on Twitteror join the conversation on Telegram — We love to hear from you!
submitted by OSTdotcom to OSTdotcom [link] [comments]

[Effort][Tinfoil Hat] Reddit's obsession goes beyond just memes.

Memes are a staple of the internet, and perhaps one of the most dominant forms of content on all of reddit. That's no secret. A 'meme' is defined as:
"an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture."[2] A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols, or practices that can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomena.
That's reddit to a T. The most prevalent being the image-macro memes shared on /adviceanimals, but it doesn't end there. A common observation or criticism of the memes its reddit's seeming affinity for birds and bears in expressing those memes. Every week there's a new meme being introduced and sweeping the site, typically taking the form of a bird or a bear to express their messages.
One might say that there's an unnatural fascination with these two animals, but I had an epiphany this morning. This goes beyond just bears and bird.
Reddit is obsessed with the letter 'B'.
Let's look at the evidence in some of the memes or sentiments associated with those memes.
That's just a taste. The list could continue almost indefinitely, as new memes are arising and spreading like wildfire every minute.
But the evidence is there, ladies and gentlemen. Reddit's obsession goes far beyond sharing thinly veiled 'DAE something popular' sentiments via image macros of birds and bears, to a most unexpected place indeed. The letter "B"
submitted by splattypus to circlebroke2 [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/Bitcoin] [GUIDE] The way I came up to have live Bitcoin and others cryptocurrencies prices on your own Exc...

The following post by AACoimbra is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been silently removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ Bitcoin/comments/75m20r
The original post's content was as follows:
The original post is on steemit, but I can't post steemit links in this subreddit how here is the tutorial in text:
I've seen some tutorials on how to import Coinmarketcap data into excel, but most of them are a little too time consuming as you need to create a new worksheet for every different coin. Here is the way I found that works the best for me. We will be creating a custom excel funcion. Here is the step by step guide:
Edit: I've just update the article to include variants of the custom function for data other than price. (Market Cap, Volume, Supply, etc).
First, create a new file (or use your own portifolio workbook) and on the "Data" tab click on "New Query" -> "From Other Sources" -> "From Web".
Past this link: "https://api.coinmarketcap.com/v1/ticke" and click OK.
A new widow will pop up. Click on "To Table" at the top left corner and hit OK.
Click on the small grey box with two arrows pointing in opposite directions next to "Column1" and press OK. Here you can select what info do you want excel to load. I personally load all of them as you can later retreive any data you want from this source.
Now click on "Close & Load"
A new worksheet will be created. Rename it to "CMC". Note: It's important to rename it exactly to "CMC", we will use a macro that will search for a "CMC" worksheet.
Select the first cell of the first column and click on the "Data" tab -> Refresh All -> "Connection Properties" -> Select "Refresh every" and set the interval you want your prices updated (I set to 20) and select "Refresh data when opening the file"
Press ALT+F11 and a new widnow should open up. Now create a new module as shown below.
Past this code:
Function CMCPrice(CMCTokenSymbol As String)
Application.Volatile
CMCPrice = WorksheetFunction.VLookup(CMCTokenSymbol, Worksheets("CMC").Range("$C:$M"), 3, 0)
End Function
Now it's all set. The code above added a custom function to excel. You can now retrieve the price of any coin registered on Coinmarketcap. To retrieve a price from Bitcoin for example, type =TokenPrice("BTC") on the cell you want the price at.
I hope I've helped you! :D
Note: Remember to save your workbook as a macro enabled workbook or else the macro will not be saved.
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: RedditDayOf top posts from 2015-12-23 to 2016-12-21 16:33 PDT

Period: 364.54 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 6566
Rate (per day) 2.74 17.97
Unique Redditors 311 2698
Combined Score 83364 32293

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 8084 points, 78 submissions: joelschlosberg
    1. actress Linda Hamilton has a twin sister who made it possible for Terminator 2 to film some scenes in one camera shot without compositing (396 points, 15 comments)
    2. Ben Franklin's daily schedule (353 points, 29 comments)
    3. historical marker (314 points, 4 comments)
    4. Isaac Asimov tells a joke involving profanity (300 points, 9 comments)
    5. The swordfights in The Princess Bride, Stanley Kubrick's Barry Lyndon, Highlander, The Mask of Zorro, Die Another Day, The Lord of the Rings, and Pirates of the Caribbean were all made by the same sword master, "the man who stabbed Errol Flynn". Who also did Darth Vader's lightsaber dueling himself. (281 points, 9 comments)
    6. Girl Scouts were told by their official handbook that "you should not be hostile to" Jews and Muslims as early as the 1918 edition. (278 points, 26 comments)
    7. "I hate versions that make Watson stupid. What makes Holmes impressive is that he outthinks smart people, not that he outthinks stupid people." (254 points, 3 comments)
    8. a joke from Isaac Asimov's Treasury of Humor (254 points, 18 comments)
    9. a tiny but full-featured solar-powered movie theater (236 points, 14 comments)
    10. Jetta, the teen-ager from the futuristic 21st century in a pre-Jetsons comic drawn by Archie Comics artist Dan DeCarlo (197 points, 9 comments)
  2. 6984 points, 104 submissions: 0and18
    1. Man Pays $10K For House, Finds $107,000 Comic Book Hidden In Wall (241 points, 13 comments)
    2. xkcd: The Three Laws of Robotics (234 points, 2 comments)
    3. FDA Lifts Decades-Old 32 Year Old Ban On Blood Donations By Gay Men (233 points, 31 comments)
    4. This is Why You Should Never Release 1.5 Million Balloons At Once (191 points, 30 comments)
    5. Teaching Methods (188 points, 2 comments)
    6. Pirámide de Mayo In Argentina covered with photos of all the "disappeared" during the Dirty War (154 points, 2 comments)
    7. In 1958, Mao Zedong ordered all sparrows to be killed. As a direct result, millions of people starved to death. (150 points, 7 comments)
    8. Without leap years, today would be July 15, 2017 Explained in Graphics (148 points, 3 comments)
    9. Film poster for the Rocketeer (135 points, 5 comments)
    10. William Kamkwamba: At age 14, in poverty and famine, a Malawian boy built a windmill to power his family's home (131 points, 3 comments)
  3. 6687 points, 50 submissions: sverdrupian
    1. An adult oyster is capable of filtering 25-50 gallons of water a day. (1030 points, 72 comments)
    2. Making chain. (290 points, 18 comments)
    3. A series of tunnels in Taiwan (261 points, 6 comments)
    4. Artichoke in full bloom (242 points, 2 comments)
    5. USS CONSTITUTION in drydock for restoration - Launched in Boston in 1797, she's the oldest commissioned warship afloat (220 points, 24 comments)
    6. German WW1-era map calling out the Allies for the hypocrisy of promoting self-determination while simultaneously holding vast colonial empires. (202 points, 26 comments)
    7. "Our future is an airport without delays" - 1975 advertisement (189 points, 14 comments)
    8. Bee macro. (184 points, 4 comments)
    9. Het Gekkenhuis - a Dutch caricature map of Europe, 1914. (180 points, 2 comments)
    10. The oarfish, the world's largest known bony fish, is thought to have spawned tales of seas serpents. (178 points, 25 comments)
  4. 4762 points, 58 submissions: wormspermgrrl
    1. During Florida winters, manatees flock to nuclear and coal power plants for the warm water discharges. (414 points, 29 comments)
    2. Happy Birthday song ruled public domain as judge throws out copyright claim (202 points, 8 comments)
    3. 18 cities in Pennsylvania reported higher levels of lead exposure than Flint (194 points, 8 comments)
    4. xkcd: Log Scale (191 points, 8 comments)
    5. Parade Magazine's Ask Marilyn Controversy: The Time Everyone “Corrected” the World’s Smartest Woman (174 points, 18 comments)
    6. Maryam Mirzakhani won the Fields Medal in 2014; she is the first woman to win math’s most prestigious prize (163 points, 1 comment)
    7. Meet the woman who makes fake fingers for Japan's reformed gangsters (161 points, 3 comments)
    8. Google's self-driving car gets pulled over for driving too slowly (157 points, 40 comments)
    9. The Wieliczka Salt Mine, Poland (154 points, 12 comments)
    10. The Decemberists - "The Mariner's Revenge Song" (149 points, 14 comments)
  5. 2906 points, 31 submissions: jaykirsch
    1. 1989 Plymouth Voyager III concept. This is a two piece detachable vehicle (link in comments) (220 points, 21 comments)
    2. "Mission Accomplished" fly-in and speech May 1, 2003. Enormous political PR blunder. (206 points, 5 comments)
    3. Prepared for gas attack in France, WW1 (202 points, 6 comments)
    4. Les Paul with Paul McCartney and a Gibson left-handed "Special." 1988 (201 points, 9 comments)
    5. "Pictured Rocks" on Lake Superior near Munising, MI (180 points, 7 comments)
    6. Art Deco in the home - stylish 1937 GE radio (146 points, 9 comments)
    7. Woody Guthrie on the attack, 1941 (141 points, 2 comments)
    8. The Great 1918 Influenza Pandemic claimed more lives than WW1, including 675,000 (est.) Americans. (Article link in comments) (135 points, 6 comments)
    9. Come on in, kids, I have some pie and a magic mushroom. (129 points, 10 comments)
    10. Yooper "Pastie" in Michigan's UP (122 points, 25 comments)
  6. 2882 points, 23 submissions: appropriate-username
    1. "We come in peace" (470 points, 10 comments)
    2. This GIF illustrates why your phone camera takes weird photos of revolving propellers. (325 points, 12 comments)
    3. An electrical current causing water to form a bridge. (xpost/gifs) (276 points, 10 comments)
    4. This series of photos got the photographer banned from Magic TCG tournaments and is among the top 5 top posts of all time on Reddit (266 points, 33 comments)
    5. "My girlfriend keeps sending me her squids" (245 points, 9 comments)
    6. Pocky is a popular Japanese snack consisting of a cracker-like stick partially covered in chocolate--I can't believe nobody posted it so I can upvote it. Here's a picture of Pocky; the wiki article on it is in the comments. (177 points, 46 comments)
    7. An animated short about a lazy guy in space--35th most popular reddit post of all time (158 points, 10 comments)
    8. xkcd: Centrifugal Force (124 points, 3 comments)
    9. 1,000 x 1,000 x 1,000 Rubik's Cube Solve (by a computer) (114 points, 10 comments)
    10. xkcd: Earth Temperature Timeline (86 points, 4 comments)
  7. 2385 points, 30 submissions: sbroue
    1. Flying hammock [gif] (275 points, 13 comments)
    2. Property for Rent: No Asians (224 points, 17 comments)
    3. Gobi warns his shrimp housekeeper of approaching predator (140 points, 11 comments)
    4. First taste of chocolate for Ivory Coast Cocoa farmers (126 points, 10 comments)
    5. "Hurricane" Higgins finishes the match [gif] (119 points, 17 comments)
    6. Big Booty Bitches (Original Video) (116 points, 16 comments)
    7. The Blessing and launching of HMS Albion (1898) created a wave that drowned 39 people, you see them bottom left in some of the earliest disaster footage (110 points, 6 comments)
    8. Pizza with mini meat-pies baked in the crust Australian frankenfood (106 points, 6 comments)
    9. Bought for £1, the mysterious tower that inspired JRR Tolkien (101 points, 1 comment)
    10. Castro meets Nixon: April 1959 [pic] (100 points, 4 comments)
  8. 1687 points, 32 submissions: ceegee1975
    1. Nicolas Cage returns stolen dinosaur skull he bought at auction for $276,000 (192 points, 11 comments)
    2. Why Hypercolor T-Shirts Were Just a One-Hit Wonder (99 points, 15 comments)
    3. Clean My Space. A youtube channel devoted to cleaning just about anything (98 points, 3 comments)
    4. Scientists have breached the blood-brain barrier for the first time to treat a brain tumour (83 points, 2 comments)
    5. They Might Be Giants-Ana Ng (78 points, 8 comments)
    6. How It's Made: Balloons (74 points, 4 comments)
    7. Mr. Bean The Movie - 'Gun' Scene (72 points, 6 comments)
    8. The Best Homemade Girl Scout Cookie Recipes (71 points, 5 comments)
    9. Monty Python - How Not to Be Seen (68 points, 2 comments)
    10. George Carlin - Euphemisms (65 points, 8 comments)
  9. 1623 points, 13 submissions: mrekted
    1. Legendary con man, scam artist, and forger Frank Abagnale Jr. pictured in the pilots seat of a Pan Am airliner. He flew over 1,000,000 miles while wearing a Pan Am uniform. He was never their employee, nor was he a pilot. (484 points, 24 comments)
    2. What It's Like When Reddit Wrongly Accuses Your Loved One Of Murder - The Boston Marathon Bomber Reddit Witch Hunt (240 points, 23 comments)
    3. Tim's Vermeer - Penn Jillette chronicles a mans ridiculously compulsive and obsessive five year obsession with reverse engineering and mastering the artistic techniques of Dutch master painter Vermeer (148 points, 6 comments)
    4. Cadillac Ranch, Amarillo TX. A bizarre, macabre tribute to the American love affair with the automobile. Visitors are encouraged to add their own ideas and messages to the memorial with spray paint. (133 points, 7 comments)
    5. 2010 - Reddit comes to the aid of a terminally ill little girl who was being cruelly harassed by her neighbors (126 points, 7 comments)
    6. In 2013, a UK man scoured the local dump after realizing he threw away a hard disk that contained 7500 bitcoins. At current market value those coins are worth a little over 5.5 million USD. (125 points, 4 comments)
    7. A float in the first Macy's Day Parade in 1924 (95 points, 1 comment)
    8. On Halloween 1938, Orson Welles enters legend with a radio play that convinced listeners that the planet was under attack by aliens from outer space (68 points, 1 comment)
    9. That's one fuckin' nice kitty right there. (51 points, 0 comments)
    10. Stampedes, pepper spray, fist fights, shootouts, and death. This is Black Friday in the United States. (49 points, 4 comments)
  10. 1535 points, 23 submissions: themanwhosleptin
    1. The reason why The Simpsons are yellow is because the creator Matt Groening wanted them to be recognizable when you flip through channels on the TV (194 points, 7 comments)
    2. Shoes (189 points, 3 comments)
    3. On April Fool's Day 2014, NPR posted a fake article on its Facebook page titled "Why Doesn't America Read Anymore?" When clicking on the post, the article asks its readers to not comment on it. Not surprisingly, many people commented anyway. (167 points, 7 comments)
    4. Gran Torino (2008) - a film about an elderly racist Korean War vet, his Hmong neighbors, and their struggles with street gangs (115 points, 11 comments)
    5. Napoleon's Exile In Saint Helena (91 points, 2 comments)
    6. Munchkin - a card game that parodies tabletop RPGs) (90 points, 7 comments)
    7. Meet Brother Najeeb Michael, the monk who saved thousands of manuscripts from IS jihadists (66 points, 1 comment)
    8. The Jimmy Timmy Power Hour - a television crossover film trilogy set between the universes in The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius and The Fairly OddParents (66 points, 2 comments)
    9. Tibetan Monks and Nuns Turn Their Minds Toward Science (51 points, 1 comment)
    10. The Rule of Thirds - a fundamental technique in photography (47 points, 0 comments)
  11. 1218 points, 14 submissions: justtoclick
    1. "Do it yourself doodler" album (359 points, 8 comments)
    2. If Harry Potter was an anime series (171 points, 37 comments)
    3. The Muppets explain Phenomenology (122 points, 4 comments)
    4. Hawaii Still Has a Leprosy Colony With Six Patients (94 points, 17 comments)
    5. David Bowie song 'Changes' inspired Brandon Flowers to form The Killers (59 points, 4 comments)
    6. Dave Barry’s 2015 Year in Review (57 points, 1 comment)
    7. U.S. Muslims to overtake Jews by 2026 (53 points, 9 comments)
    8. The Beatles Play Ed Sullivan: The Historic TV Appearance Heralding the British Invasion (52 points, 0 comments)
    9. The Evolution of Batman's Bat Symbol [Infographic] (51 points, 10 comments)
    10. Cycling With the Psycos -- Counterculture feminism in East L.A (48 points, 0 comments)
  12. 1191 points, 14 submissions: Lillyclown
    1. A Pocket Guide to Vaginal Euphemisms (197 points, 33 comments)
    2. The story behind the McDonalds hot coffee lawsuit (165 points, 28 comments)
    3. The Polish Beer Drinking Party (PPPP), orginally a satirical political party to promote beer, not vodka, and fight alcoholism, won 16 seats in the 1991 parliamentary election. Later splitting to Big Beer and Little Beer. (126 points, 6 comments)
    4. History of Color (115 points, 3 comments)
    5. The Chemistry of Ice Cream (89 points, 6 comments)
    6. 150 year old sunken steam boat's contents. Including still edible food! (87 points, 3 comments)
    7. The Strangest, Most Spectacular Bridge Collapse (65 points, 7 comments)
    8. All Blacks haka (61 points, 1 comment)
    9. The Poisoning of a City (61 points, 0 comments)
    10. British Police use Tea as a perfect analogy for sexual consent. (57 points, 9 comments)
  13. 1147 points, 14 submissions: Radu316
    1. There's a statue of Lenin at the Pole of Inaccessibility in Antarctica. It was on top of a Soviet research station in the 60s. Abandoned in '67, it was forgotten until 2007 when it was rediscovered by a team of explorers. By then, the statue was the only part still visible. (167 points, 2 comments)
    2. Strelka was one of the first animals in space to return safely. She became a sensation in the Soviet Union and had puppies with cosmo-dog Pushok. Nikita Khrushchev gave a puppy, Pushinka, to JFK as a gift. She also had puppies and Strelka's bloodline is still alive in the United States. (147 points, 7 comments)
    3. The Turk was an 18th century chess-playing automaton. It went on a tour of Europe and America, defeating noted chess players like Ben Franklin and Napoleon. After being destroyed in a fire, it was revealed to be a hoax - a person (usually a chessmaster) hid inside and operated it. (136 points, 10 comments)
    4. "Houston, we have a problem" is a slight misquote popularized by the Apollo 13 movie. The real line was actually "Houston, we've had a problem" and was first said by astronaut John Swigert, not mission captain Jim Lovell. (115 points, 14 comments)
    5. Marginalia are all the various scribbles and comments made in margins of books or documents. In medieval times, religious texts written by nuns and monks featured marginalia with all sorts of vulgar images and dirty jokes. (96 points, 5 comments)
    6. Brain crater on Mars. The bizarre texture of the crater floor makes it resemble a brain. NASA worked out that, at 0.6 miles wide, the brain is about the right size to fit inside the mound known as the Face of Mars. (90 points, 0 comments)
    7. Statue of Alexander the Great taming Bucephalus. Bucephalus is often regarded as the most famous (real) horse in history. According to Plutarch, the horse died at the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC. Afterwards Alexander founded the city of Bucephalia in his honor somewhere in modern day Pakistan. (81 points, 4 comments)
    8. Pretty much everything there is to know about tartan (aka plaid in America). The pattern of the kilt can be used to display your family background, royal lineage, service in specific branches of the military, even your name. You can even register new ones at the Scottish Register of Tartans. (79 points, 4 comments)
    9. "There's a sucker born every minute" is a quote attributed to P.T. Barnum, but it was actually said by David Hannum, one of his competitors. Hannum said it referring to people who paid to see Barnum's Cardiff Giant instead of his original, not realizing that both were fake. (60 points, 0 comments)
    10. Heart of Neolithic Orkney is a 5,000-year old world heritage site in Scotland. It includes four monuments: two ceremonial stone circles, a tomb and a former village called Skara Brae. Skara Brae is sometimes called "Scottish Pompeii" because it is so well-preserved. (47 points, 2 comments)
  14. 1128 points, 13 submissions: StochasticLife
    1. Banned until the 1980's, rock music in the USSR was smuggled around the country on records made from X Ray film. They were called 'Ribs' or 'Bone Records'. (216 points, 14 comments)
    2. Lithuania has only ever had a single king, Mindaugus. He was crowned king in 1251 and assassinated in 1263. (157 points, 5 comments)
    3. Russian had a monopoly on Vodka for over 400 years (1540's - 1992) and at one point Vodka sales made up 40% of the state's revenue (130 points, 8 comments)
    4. A nickelodeon was a hastily assembled movie theater, often setup in converted store fronts, that charged a nickle for admission. They were most popular between 1905 and 1915.) (114 points, 0 comments)
    5. Christopher Hitchen's video - Mother Theresa Hell's Angel, a critical look at her political relationships and the nature of her charitable practices. (109 points, 11 comments)
    6. Zatoichi, about a blind swordsmen, is one of Japan longest running film and TV series with over 27 films and 100 TV Episodes. (91 points, 6 comments)
    7. The oldest (surviving), and largest, Baha'i house of worship is in Wilmette Illiniois.) (64 points, 8 comments)
    8. Some humans (all women) are tetrachromats and are capable of seeing millions of colors the rest of us can't see (60 points, 10 comments)
    9. Geddy Lee of Rush was born in Canada to parents who were Polish Immigrants and holocaust survivors of Auschwitz, Dachu, and Bergen-Belsen. (50 points, 2 comments)
    10. North Korea prints the best counterfeit $100 (USD) bills in the world; they have been dubbed the 'Supernote' (45 points, 0 comments)
  15. 910 points, 8 submissions: frigate
    1. Salmon farmers choose the desired orangness-pinkness of their product from a colour chart (SalmoFan) provided by a company which supplies the food dyes to colour farmed salmon that would otherwise be gray, khaki, pale yellow, or pale pink (191 points, 10 comments)
    2. Kurt Vonnegut humorously graphs the shapes of stories (162 points, 5 comments)
    3. The Highway Hi-Fi: the short-lived record player designed for use in automobiles in the 1950's (155 points, 10 comments)
    4. H&M is making a $99 wedding dress. Here’s what that says about economics. (138 points, 43 comments)
    5. How a Math Genius Hacked OkCupid to Find True Love (100 points, 18 comments)
    6. A few of the most impressive and iconic pipe organs from around the world (81 points, 3 comments)
    7. Truth and Reconciliation Commission: By the numbers – The odds of a child dying in a residential school were about the same as a Canadian soldier dying in World War 2 (48 points, 2 comments)
    8. Gordon Lightfoot superfans cherish every show – "Lightfoot lifers" are fans of Gordon Lightfoot who see as many performances as possible (35 points, 1 comment)
  16. 854 points, 5 submissions: CryptoCollectibles
    1. Cows Playing With Hay .gif (351 points, 24 comments)
    2. Super Antics #8 by Kerry Callen (303 points, 18 comments)
    3. This Ad for /Bitcoin made Two Years Ago, As relevant today as ever describing CryptoCurrency (114 points, 3 comments)
    4. How to Draw Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles from 1986 (43 points, 1 comment)
    5. DIY: 25 Wearable Geek Projects You Can Knit or Crochet (43 points, 0 comments)
  17. 698 points, 7 submissions: goofballl
    1. Hongdae's (in Seoul) Love Museum features a single exhibit on the history of pornography in Korea. The rest of the museum is taken up with interactive sex-related photo ops. (203 points, 6 comments)
    2. Last known VCR maker stopped production in July, 40 years after VHS format launch (140 points, 9 comments)
    3. Although the exact cause for vitiligo remains unknown, it is thought to be caused by the immune system attacking and destroying the melanocytes of the skin. It famously affected Michael Jackson, causing sections of his skin to lighten over time. (106 points, 13 comments)
    4. Utchari, one of the most difficult moves in sumo, requires a wrestler to lift their opponent entirely off the ground and throw him behind and to the side. (89 points, 7 comments)
    5. Yamadera (lit. mountain temple) is a temple complex found in Yamagata Prefecture after a thousand step climb. It's where the poet Matsuo Basho penned his famous haiku: In the stillness/the cry of the cicada/penetrates the rock. (88 points, 10 comments)
    6. Cauliflower ear occurs when a blood clot forms between ear cartilage and connective tissue. This causes the cartilage to die, creating a deformity common to grappling sports like wrestling. (39 points, 3 comments)
    7. Guillain–Barré syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nerves and damages their myelin insulation. During the disease, only a third of afflicted people are able to walk, and the exact cause of the disease can remain unknown. (33 points, 0 comments)
  18. 698 points, 7 submissions: E_Pluriscoop_Unum
    1. Roger Ebert: "Ponyo [is] one of the very rare movies where I want to sit in the front row, to drown in it. This is more than “artistry.” It is art." (211 points, 11 comments)
    2. Chocolate Rain - Tay Zonday (138 points, 7 comments)
    3. Billy West, the voice of Nickelodeon, talking about some of his voices. (122 points, 7 comments)
    4. Pingu - A beloved children's show from Switzerland (68 points, 5 comments)
    5. Nümberwang - Mitchell & Webb (58 points, 0 comments)
    6. A point about drawing swords (57 points, 3 comments)
    7. Werner Herzog's Disoriented Penguin (44 points, 3 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. wil (3635 points, 155 comments)
  2. 0and18 (584 points, 284 comments)
  3. wormspermgrrl (350 points, 214 comments)
  4. joelschlosberg (334 points, 58 comments)
  5. twitch1982 (222 points, 19 comments)
  6. balrogath (218 points, 36 comments)
  7. justtoclick (216 points, 38 comments)
  8. sverdrupian (199 points, 31 comments)
  9. appropriate-username (154 points, 49 comments)
  10. jaykirsch (151 points, 51 comments)
  11. davidystephenson (145 points, 7 comments)
  12. mrekted (138 points, 5 comments)
  13. no-fun-at-parties (136 points, 17 comments)
  14. Neebat (128 points, 17 comments)
  15. ceegee1975 (112 points, 45 comments)
  16. Disaster_Area (111 points, 4 comments)
  17. markevens (108 points, 8 comments)
  18. raendrop (107 points, 11 comments)
  19. Hazlzz (103 points, 6 comments)
  20. sunnieskye1 (99 points, 14 comments)
  21. Otterfan (96 points, 9 comments)
  22. sbroue (95 points, 18 comments)
  23. xkcd_transcriber (95 points, 11 comments)
  24. DnMarshall (95 points, 5 comments)
  25. rlbond86 (94 points, 15 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. An adult oyster is capable of filtering 25-50 gallons of water a day. by sverdrupian (1030 points, 72 comments)
  2. I was a child star in the 80s. AMA by wil (574 points, 535 comments)
  3. Legendary con man, scam artist, and forger Frank Abagnale Jr. pictured in the pilots seat of a Pan Am airliner. He flew over 1,000,000 miles while wearing a Pan Am uniform. He was never their employee, nor was he a pilot. by mrekted (484 points, 24 comments)
  4. "We come in peace" by appropriate-username (470 points, 10 comments)
  5. The anime Ghost Stories was a mediocre show without much to write home about. However, when it came time to translate it to English, the dub team was given enough leeway that they pretty much parodied the original material. The results are hilarious. by selfproclaimed (439 points, 38 comments)
  6. During Florida winters, manatees flock to nuclear and coal power plants for the warm water discharges. by wormspermgrrl (414 points, 29 comments)
  7. A brief Batman comic by Czarry (396 points, 8 comments)
  8. actress Linda Hamilton has a twin sister who made it possible for Terminator 2 to film some scenes in one camera shot without compositing by joelschlosberg (396 points, 15 comments)
  9. "Do it yourself doodler" album by justtoclick (359 points, 8 comments)
  10. Ben Franklin's daily schedule by joelschlosberg (353 points, 29 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 175 points: wil's comment in I was a child star in the 80s. AMA
  2. 137 points: wil's comment in I was a child star in the 80s. AMA
  3. 135 points: wil's comment in I was a child star in the 80s. AMA
  4. 101 points: wil's comment in I was a child star in the 80s. AMA
  5. 101 points: wil's comment in I was a child star in the 80s. AMA
  6. 92 points: wil's comment in I was a child star in the 80s. AMA
  7. 92 points: wil's comment in I was a child star in the 80s. AMA
  8. 87 points: deleted's comment in Cause of Death for Yuri Gagarin, 1st Man in Space, Finally Revealed
  9. 86 points: markevens's comment in Woman ruins marriage on game show and still loses
  10. 84 points: wil's comment in I was a child star in the 80s. AMA
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Overview of Symbol Blockchain  An enterprise blockchain ... Bitcoin macro symbol sign close-up slowmo - YouTube Bitcoin macro symbol sign close-up MAJOR BITCOIN UPDATE!!! MUST WATCH!! Crypto BTC TA price ... Bitcoin Macro Bullish Is Great for Alt Coins. Buying $trb ...

configure: WARNING: libprotobuf not found; bitcoin-qt frontend will not be built checking for libevent... no configure: error: libevent not found. Warning: protobuf 3.5.1 is already installed Warning: libevent 2.1.8 is already installed. My output for autogen.sh. Josephs-MacBook-Pro:bitcoin josephnicholasr.alcantara$ ./autogen.sh You can use Google Sheets’ built-in Google Finance function to find the current price of Bitcoin, or any other currency or stock ticker. Just enter =GOOGLEFINANCE("CURRENCY:BTCUSD") in your spreadsheet to find the current price of Bitcoin in US Do... Bitcoin Price Consolidating For Next Move. Bitcoin price 0 0 opened the week just a slight about $3500 which is where it currently stands. The $3500 Price level was tested on Tuesday by the bears who managed to push the price down around $100, before seeing a strong 5% swing back to $3600, which may have been posturing by algorithmic trading to determine the strength of the market at lower prices. While we're proud to be one of the largest bitcoin exchanges, serving clients in over 190 countries, we're just as excited about helping people discover the world of crypto and expand their portfolios to include other digital assets. Learn how start trading on Kraken. From simple buying to advanced trading we have you covered. From simple buying to advanced trading we have you covered. Our ... “This investment reflects our belief that Bitcoin, as the world’s most widely-adopted cryptocurrency, ... Japanese Yen, or the Euro. It trades under the ticker symbol USDT. READ: Ripple Whale transfers 20,000,000 XRP to Binance. Backstory. Nairametrics had earlier outlined a report on the organic growth of Tether’s market capitalization, as one of the major reasons for the gain Bitcoin ...

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Overview of Symbol Blockchain An enterprise blockchain ...

Crypto mentorships available now!!! Limited slots [email protected] 🔒🔒🔒😎Secure your coins Hardware wallets are the safest https://shop.ledg... Ledge Nano S Giveaway Information Link : https://bit.ly/3gkpm7O In this video, I talked about "Symbol Blockchain" which is a part of NEM ecosystem. It is a p... Bitcoin macro symbol sign close-up golden coin You can buy this video and many more here: http://www.shutterstock.com/video/gallery/79576?rid=79576 The macro in the very first comment below lets you import the current value held in any Bitcoin address into Excel. Thanks to https://blockchain.info for their API. See reply to Juan Lopez's ... THIS IS HUGE!!! MUST SEE BITCOIN analysis, Markets, election, and what this means for BTC, we will take a look at the macro and what I am expecting, The mark...

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